A flexible bronchoscope, equipped with fiber optics, camera, and light source, allows for real-time, direct visualization of the airways. It has a fiber-optic light source that illuminates the distal end of the scope allowing for visualization of the airways, a suction port that allows for aspiration of fluid and a working channel that allows for the passage of small instruments such as cytology brushing and biopsy forceps, as well as, for suctioning and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) collection. Standard diagnostic tools such as biopsy forceps, an aspiration needle, and bronchial brush are used to obtain tissue samples. Bronchoscopic lung cryobiopsy (BLC) is a novel technique for obtaining lung tissue for the diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. is useful in diagnosing many interstitial lung diseases including sarcoidosis, non-interstitial pneumonia, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or rejection after lung transplant. As the cryoprobe is activated, the tip adheres to the tissue due to crystallization of water and can thus be extracted.
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