Background: Permanent teeth pulp exposures have traditionally been treated with calcium hydroxide pulp capping. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of human pulp tissue which were mechanically exposed to a new material, Propolis and compare it with two existing and commonly used pulp capping agents (mineral trioxide aggregate and Dycal). Methods: Thirty-six intact human premolars were mechanically exposed. Teeth were divided into six groups of 6 teeth each and were capped with Propolis, mineral trioxide aggregate and Dycal. Final restoration was done with posterior composite resin using light cured glass ionomer cement as a liner. The teeth were then extracted on the 15th or the 45th day and processed for histological evaluation. Results: Differences in inflammatory response and dentine bridge formation of the exposed pulp to the three different materials were statistically calculated using chi-square test and were found to be non-significant. There was more pulp inflammation in teeth treated with Dycal than with Propolis and MTA on the 15th as well as on the 45th day. Propolis and MTA showed bridge formation in more teeth, and the bridges were in closer proximity to pulp capping material than teeth treated with Dycal on the 45th day. Conclusions: The response of pulps to Propolis as a pulp capping agent was comparable to MTA and Dycal.
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