Hydrogen can be a promising clean energy carrier for the replenishment of non-renewable fossil fuels. The set back of hydrogen as an alternative fuel is due to its difficulties in feasible storage and safety concerns. Current hydrogen adsorption technologies, such as cryo-compressed and liquefied storage, are costly for practical applications. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials that have structural versatility, high porosity and surface area, which can adsorb hydrogen efficiently. Hydrogen is adsorbed by physisorption on the MOFs through weak van der Waals force of attraction which can be easily desorbed by applying suitable heat or pressure. The strategies to improve the MOFs surface area, hydrogen uptake capacities and parameters affecting them are studied. Hydrogen spill over mechanism is found to provide high-density storage when compared to other mechanisms. MOFs can be used as proton exchange membranes to convert the stored hydrogen into electricity and can be used as electrodes for the fuel cells. In this review, we addressed the key strategies that could improve hydrogen storage properties for utilizing hydrogen as fuel and opportunities for further growth to meet energy demands.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology