Introduction: In India, approximately 6 million populations are affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Anemia and leukopenia, especially thrombocytopenia is seen commonly in HIV infections. Low CD4+ count and increased viral load are some of the factors associated with increased risk of thrombocytopenia. We analyzed the hematological profile in a group of 150 HIV infected patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective and prospective study of medical records of 150 HIV positive patients at Clinical Pathology laboratory at our institution was done between August 1st and October 15th, 2011 using nonrandom sampling. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, red cell indices, total leukocyte and differential count, CD4+ and platelet count were noted. Results: Of the 150 patients, 40 (26.67%) were below age 10 and 98 (65.33%) in 21-50 years age group. Eighty-six (57.33%) were females. Hundred patients had anemia (Hb <12 g/dl) of which 58% were microcytic hypochromic (MCHC). Eighteen patients had leukopenia along with anemia. Total number of patients with low CD4 count (<200/μL) was 32 (21.33%) and all had hematological abnormalities, mostly anemias with few leukopenia and thrombocytopenias. All patients with pancytopenia had low CD4+ counts. Total number of patients with thrombocytopenia (<1.5 lacs/dl) was 20 (13.33%). Four patients (2.67%) had pancytopenia. Conclusions: MCHC anemia is the most common morphological variant of anemia. Leukopenia was found to be consistently associated with anemia. Thus, anemia and to a greater extent leukopenia are bad prognostic indicators of disease. Pancytopenia may herald a low CD4+ count.
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