The oral route is the most widely accepted and commonly used route for administration. However, this route may not be suitable for certain drug candidates which suffer from the problem of low aqueous solubility and gastrointestinal absorption and extensive first-pass effect. Nanotechnology-based approaches can be taken up as remedies to overcome the disadvantages associated with the oral route. Among the various nanocarriers, lipidic nanocarriers are widely used for oral delivery of bioactive molecules owing to their several advantages. Active targeting of bioactive molecules via lipidic nanocarriers has also been widely attempted to improve oral bioavailability and to avoid first-pass effect. This active targeting approach involves the use of ligands grafted or conjugated onto a nanocarrier that is specific to the receptors. Active targeting increases the therapeutic efficacy as well as reduces the toxic side effects of the drug or bioactive molecules. This review mainly focuses on the challenges involved in the oral delivery of drugs and its approaches to overcome the challenges using nanotechnology, specifically focusing on lipidic nanocarriers like liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and nanostructured lipid carriers and active targeting of drug molecules by making use of ligand-conjugated lipidic nanocarriers.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Drug Discovery