Deep tissue imaging using two-photon fluorescence (TPF) techniques have revolutionized the optical imaging community by providing in depth molecular information at the single-cell level. These techniques provide structural and functional aspects of mammalian brain at unprecedented depth and resolution. However, wavefront distortions introduced by the optical system as well as the biological sample (tissue) limit the achievable fluorescence signal-to-noise ratio and resolution with penetration depth. In this review, we discuss on the advances in TPF microscopy techniques for in vivo functional imaging and offer guidelines as to which technologies are best suited for different imaging applications with special reference to adaptive optics.
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