Innumerable studies associated with cellular differentiation, tissue response and disease modeling have been conducted in two-dimensional (2D) culture systems or animal models. This has been invaluable in deciphering the normal and disease states in cell biology; the key shortcomings of it being suitability for translational or clinical correlations. The past decade has seen several major advances in organoid culture technologies and this has enhanced our understanding of mimicking organ reconstruction. The term organoid has generally been used to describe cellular aggregates derived from primary tissues or stem cells that can self-organize into organotypic structures. Organoids mimic the cellular microenvironment of tissues better than 2D cell culture systems and represent the tissue physiology. Human organoids of brain, thyroid, gastrointestinal, lung, cardiac, liver, pancreatic and kidney have been established from various diseases, healthy tissues and from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Advances in patient-derived organoid culture further provides a unique perspective from which treatment modalities can be personalized. In this review article, we have discussed the current strategies for establishing various types of organoids of ectodermal, endodermal and mesodermal origin. We have also discussed their applications in modeling human health and diseases (such as cancer, genetic, neurodegenerative and infectious diseases), applications in regenerative medicine and evolutionary studies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)