Alcoholic index using non-linear features extracted from different frequency bands

G. Muralidhar Bairy, U. C. Niranjan, Shu Lih Oh, Joel E.W. Koh, Vidya K. Sudarshan, Jen Hong Tan, Yuki Hagiwara, Eddie Y.K. Ng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Alcoholism is a complex condition that mainly disturbs the neuronal networks in Central Nervous System (CNS). This disorder not only disturbs the brain, but also affects the behavior, emotions, and cognitive judgements. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a valuable tool to examine the neuropsychiatric disorders like alcoholism. The EEG is a well-established modality to diagnose the electrical activity produced by the populations of neurons in cerebral cortex. However, EEG signals are non-linear in nature; hence very challenging to interpret the valuable information from them using linear methods. Thus, using non-linear methods to analyze EEG signals can be beneficial in order to predict the brain signals condition. This paper presents a computer-aided diagnostic method for the detection of alcoholic EEG signals from normal by employing the non-linear techniques. First, the EEG signals are subjected to six levels of Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD) to obtain seven wavebands (delta (d), theta (t), lower alpha (la), upper alpha (ua), lower beta (lb), upper beta (ub), lower gamma (lg)). From each wavebands (activity bands), 19 non-linear features such as Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) (Ryx), Approximate Entropy (Eapx), Energy (Îx), Fractal Dimension (FD) (FDx), Permutation Entropy (Epx), Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (αyx), Hurst Exponent (EHx), Largest Lyapunov Exponent (ELLEx), Sample Entropy (Esx), Shannon's Entropy (Eshx), Renyi's entropy (Erx), Tsalli's entropy (Etsx), Fuzzy entropy (Efx), Wavelet entropy (Ewx), Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy (Eksx), Modified Multiscale Entropy (Emmsyx), Hjorth's parameters (activity (Sax), mobility (Hmx), and complexity (Hcx)) are extracted. The extracted features are then ranked using Bhattacharyya, Entropy, Fuzzy entropy-based Max-Relevancy and Min-Redundancy (mRMR), Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), t-test, and Wilcoxon. These ranked features are given to train Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. The SVM classifier with radial basis function (RBF) achieved 95.41% accuracy, 93.33% sensitivity and 97.50% specificity using four non-linear features ranked by Wilcoxon method. In addition, an integrated index called Alcoholic Index (ALCOHOLI) is developed using highly ranked two features for identification of normal and alcoholic EEG signals using a single number. This system is rapid, efficient, and inexpensive and can be employed as an EEG analysis assisting system by clinicians in the detection of alcoholism. In addition, the proposed system can be used in rehabilitation centers to evaluate person with alcoholism over time and observe the outcome of treatment provided for reducing or reversing the impact of the condition on the brain.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1740009
JournalJournal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology
Volume17
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-11-2017
Externally publishedYes

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Frequency bands
Entropy
Electroencephalography
Brain
Support vector machines
Classifiers
Neurology
Fractal dimension
Patient rehabilitation
Neurons
Redundancy
Decomposition

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomedical Engineering

Cite this

Muralidhar Bairy, G., Niranjan, U. C., Oh, S. L., Koh, J. E. W., Sudarshan, V. K., Tan, J. H., ... Ng, E. Y. K. (2017). Alcoholic index using non-linear features extracted from different frequency bands. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, 17(7), [1740009]. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219519417400097
Muralidhar Bairy, G. ; Niranjan, U. C. ; Oh, Shu Lih ; Koh, Joel E.W. ; Sudarshan, Vidya K. ; Tan, Jen Hong ; Hagiwara, Yuki ; Ng, Eddie Y.K. / Alcoholic index using non-linear features extracted from different frequency bands. In: Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology. 2017 ; Vol. 17, No. 7.
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abstract = "Alcoholism is a complex condition that mainly disturbs the neuronal networks in Central Nervous System (CNS). This disorder not only disturbs the brain, but also affects the behavior, emotions, and cognitive judgements. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a valuable tool to examine the neuropsychiatric disorders like alcoholism. The EEG is a well-established modality to diagnose the electrical activity produced by the populations of neurons in cerebral cortex. However, EEG signals are non-linear in nature; hence very challenging to interpret the valuable information from them using linear methods. Thus, using non-linear methods to analyze EEG signals can be beneficial in order to predict the brain signals condition. This paper presents a computer-aided diagnostic method for the detection of alcoholic EEG signals from normal by employing the non-linear techniques. First, the EEG signals are subjected to six levels of Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD) to obtain seven wavebands (delta (d), theta (t), lower alpha (la), upper alpha (ua), lower beta (lb), upper beta (ub), lower gamma (lg)). From each wavebands (activity bands), 19 non-linear features such as Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) (Ryx), Approximate Entropy (Eapx), Energy ({\^I}x), Fractal Dimension (FD) (FDx), Permutation Entropy (Epx), Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (αyx), Hurst Exponent (EHx), Largest Lyapunov Exponent (ELLEx), Sample Entropy (Esx), Shannon's Entropy (Eshx), Renyi's entropy (Erx), Tsalli's entropy (Etsx), Fuzzy entropy (Efx), Wavelet entropy (Ewx), Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy (Eksx), Modified Multiscale Entropy (Emmsyx), Hjorth's parameters (activity (Sax), mobility (Hmx), and complexity (Hcx)) are extracted. The extracted features are then ranked using Bhattacharyya, Entropy, Fuzzy entropy-based Max-Relevancy and Min-Redundancy (mRMR), Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), t-test, and Wilcoxon. These ranked features are given to train Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. The SVM classifier with radial basis function (RBF) achieved 95.41{\%} accuracy, 93.33{\%} sensitivity and 97.50{\%} specificity using four non-linear features ranked by Wilcoxon method. In addition, an integrated index called Alcoholic Index (ALCOHOLI) is developed using highly ranked two features for identification of normal and alcoholic EEG signals using a single number. This system is rapid, efficient, and inexpensive and can be employed as an EEG analysis assisting system by clinicians in the detection of alcoholism. In addition, the proposed system can be used in rehabilitation centers to evaluate person with alcoholism over time and observe the outcome of treatment provided for reducing or reversing the impact of the condition on the brain.",
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Muralidhar Bairy, G, Niranjan, UC, Oh, SL, Koh, JEW, Sudarshan, VK, Tan, JH, Hagiwara, Y & Ng, EYK 2017, 'Alcoholic index using non-linear features extracted from different frequency bands', Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 17, no. 7, 1740009. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219519417400097

Alcoholic index using non-linear features extracted from different frequency bands. / Muralidhar Bairy, G.; Niranjan, U. C.; Oh, Shu Lih; Koh, Joel E.W.; Sudarshan, Vidya K.; Tan, Jen Hong; Hagiwara, Yuki; Ng, Eddie Y.K.

In: Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 17, No. 7, 1740009, 01.11.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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