An adaptive audio watermarking based on the singular value decomposition in the wavelet domain

Vivekananda Bhat K, Indranil Sengupta, Abhijit Das

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

151 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a secure, robust, and blind adaptive audio watermarking algorithm based on singular value decomposition (SVD) in the discrete wavelet transform domain using synchronization code. In our algorithm, a watermark is embedded by applying a quantization-index-modulation process on the singular values in the SVD of the wavelet domain blocks. The watermarked signal is perceptually similar to the original audio signal and gives high quality output. Experimental results show that the hidden watermark data is robust to additive noise, resampling, low-pass filtering, requantization, MP3 compression, cropping, echo addition, and denoising. Performance analysis of the proposed scheme shows low error probability rates. The data embedding rate of the proposed scheme is 45.9 bps. The proposed scheme has high payload and superior performance against MP3 compression compared to the earlier audio watermarking schemes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1547-1558
Number of pages12
JournalDigital Signal Processing: A Review Journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 01-12-2010


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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