Analysis of CMBR using nano-satellite

Dhananjay Sahoo, Avish Gupta

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


This paper intends to design a payload for a Nanosat to record and analyze the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR). Since its discovery in 1965, CMBR has become a much-discussed topic with the speculation that it might hold the key to the birth of our Universe. The big bang theory not only scattered the matter which condensed into galaxies, but also a massive amount of radiation which can be detected by using appropriate instruments, albeit as microwaves due to massive redshift (Redshift is shifting of the wavelength of light or some other form of electromagnetic radiation to the red end of the spectrum. It occurs when a light source moves away from the observer) of our ever-expanding universe. The space missions for detection of CMBR have not been cost efficient, and the Earth-based laboratories deal with too much interference from the surrounding sources. The radiation that was first discovered was of the wavelength 10cm at a reported temperature of 3.5 ± 1 K. The data received about the cosmic microwave background radiation can provide us much information about the anisotropic nature of the observable universe, the cosmic inflation era as well as the recombination era. In the present scenario, CMBR can be detected at a wavelength of about 2 mm. The challenge lies in using a Nanosat in the low earth orbit (LEO) to study CMBR because, being a form of radiation in itself, it is very susceptible to noise from the surrounding sources. The radiation from the sun, the earth as well as the satellite itself will contribute to the noise which needs to be calibrated off since the radiation due to the Cosmic Microwave Background is faint. The interference due to the ambient plasma will also be added to the noise. The antennas are designed with reflectors and calibrated to deal away with all of the aforementioned noises. The use of appropriate rectifiers and amplifiers for selection and amplification of the desired data has also been employed. The whole setup is cooled externally and the orbit selected to minimise the interfering radiation. The spinning of the satellite is controlled to gather desired amount data from a particular region of space. A detailed analysis for noise mitigation and selection of appropriate equipment has been discussed in this paper.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2018 IEEE Aerospace Conference, AERO 2018
PublisherIEEE Computer Society
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9781538620144
Publication statusPublished - 25-06-2018
Externally publishedYes
Event2018 IEEE Aerospace Conference, AERO 2018 - Big Sky, United States
Duration: 03-03-201810-03-2018


Conference2018 IEEE Aerospace Conference, AERO 2018
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityBig Sky

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Space and Planetary Science


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