Background: There have been numerous cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) studies done over the years to analyze the canal configurations among various racial and ethnic population groups. Several of these studies have highlighted a certain consistency in the incidence of particular features within these population subsets. Aim: The study aimed to analyze the root morphology and canal configurations of the maxillary first premolar (Mx1PM) in the Indian Dravidian subpopulation using CBCT. Setting and Design: This study involved a retrospective analysis of 200 CBCT scans, which included 400 Mx1PM. Methods: The CBCT images were evaluated, and the number of roots and canal configurations was recorded as per the Vertucci's classification. Statistical Analysis: Variations in the number of roots and canal anatomies were statistically interpreted using the Chi-square test of association with the significance level set at P < 0.05. Results: Among the 400 Mx1PM studied, 116 (29%) teeth displayed single roots and 284 (71%) showed the presence of two roots. The single-rooted premolars revealed a varied canal configuration with a predominance of Vertucci's Type II configuration in around 53.4% of the Mx1PM. The two-rooted premolars revealed 100% Type I canal configuration. Conclusion: The Mx1PM studied predominantly showed the two-rooted morphology with independent canals in each root. There was no significant difference between the teeth on either side of the same arch. The CBCT is an excellent nondestructive modality that can help us study the internal anatomy of pulp space accurately.
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