The variations of the profunda and its branches are numerous, and, to a considerable extent, largely associated with one another. In occlusion of the Superficial femoral artery, the profunda femoris artery forms an effective collateral bed between the ileo-femoral segment and the popliteal artery and its branches. This study based on dissections performed on 40 properly embalmed human cadaver specimens. The position, source and the point of origin of the profunda and its circumflex branches were studied and compared with earlier literature. We found that profunda femoris was originated from the posterolateral surface of the common femoral artery with a mean distance of 3.56 cms from the midinguinal point. An absence of profunda femoris was noted in one (5 %) case. Medial circumflex femoral artery (in 40 % on right side and 60 % on left side) originated from the profunda femoris; whereas in 50 % on right and 35 % on left side, it begins from the femoral artery. On the otherhand, the lateral circumflex femoral in 80 % on right and 70 % on left sides sprungs from profunda femoris with 20 % and 25 % from common femoral arteries of right and left limb specimens respectively. Knowledge of variations in profunda femoris and its branches helps surgeons during preoperative clinical evaluation for surgical and interventional revascularization of the ileo-femoral and femoro-popliteal segments, in open canulation of femoral artery for cardiopulmonary bypasss, in radiological interventions for A-V malformations, and in salvage operations for traumatic limb ischemia.
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