Introduction: Prophylactic antibiotics are used frequently for acute pancreatitis (AP). Consensus guidelines do not recommend this currently, based on moderate quality evidence. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antibiotic use pattern in AP in India and propose a risk-directed approach to antibiotic use in AP.
Material and Methods: This multicenter study was conducted from 1 May 2013 to 31 July 2013. Eleven participants from eight tertiary centers completed a questionnaire that captured patient demographics, etiology, admission status, presence of (peri)pancreatic necrosis, severity of pancreatitis, details of antibiotic use, and clinical outcomes (total hospital stay, persistent organ failure, need for ICU, total days in ICU, development of infections, in-hospital mortality).
Results: A total of 200 proformas were analyzed. Seventy-three (36.5 %) had acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). Eighty-nine (44.5 %), 52 (26 %), and 55 (27.5 %) patients had mild AP (MAP), moderately severe AP (MSAP), and severe AP (SAP), respectively. Forty-five (22.5 %) patients developed infections (unifocal 29; multifocal 16). One hundred thirty-four (67 %) patients received antibiotics, of which 89 (66.4 %) received prophylactic, while 45 (33.6 %) received therapeutic antibiotics. The distribution of antibiotic use according to the severity of AP was 43 (48.3 %) in patients with MAP (prophylactic in 41; therapeutic in 2), 36 (69.2 %) in patients with MSAP (prophylactic in 29; therapeutic in 7), and 55 (100 %) in patients with SAP (prophylactic in 19; therapeutic in 36). Therapeutic antibiotics were prescribed based on culture and sensitivity in 21 (46.7 %) patients.
Conclusions: Despite nonrecommendation, prophylactic antibiotics are used frequently in AP. We emphasize on the need for multicenter randomized controlled trials on prophylactic antibiotics for AP based on a risk-directed approach, rather than a “blanket approach”.
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