Background: Poor oral bioavailability of curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric, has limited its therapeutic use in various diseases including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was aimed at evaluating and comparing the antidiabetic activity as well as pharmacokinetic profile of two turmeric extracts. Materials and methods: Rats were divided into seven groups (n = 6) including Normal control (NC), Diabetic control (DC), two standard control groups- Glibenclamide (GLIB) 5 mg/kg and Metformin (MET) 500 mg/kg, two bio-enhanced turmeric extract (BTE) treated groups (BTE-30 (30 mg/kg), BTE-60 (60 mg/kg)) and one regular turmeric extract treated (RTE) group RTE-30 (30 mg/kg). Treatment was given orally for 30 days. Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) and Nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance test at 60 min and 120 min (OG1 and OG2) were analysed at baseline and at the end of study on Day 29. FBG, fasting serum insulin, and concentration of curcumin and its derivatives present in pancreas were analysed at the end of study on Day 30. Results: Turmeric extract treated groups showed significant (p < 0.05) blood glucose lowering effect, when compared with DC group. FBG, OG1 and OG2 readings were found significantly (p < 0.05) higher in RTE-30 treated group when compared with BTE-30 treated groups. Turmeric extracts showed improved beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity and decreased insulin resistance. BTE-30 had more pancreatic bioavailability of curcumin than RTE-30. Conclusion: Turmeric extracts demonstrated an antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rats. BTE extract was found to be an effective agent as compared to RTE in controlling hyperglycemia.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Drug Discovery
- Complementary and alternative medicine