Antidiabetic properties of the alcoholic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus in streptozotocin-nicotinamide diabetic rats

K.S. Prabhu, R. Lobo, A. Shirwaikar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have investigated the possible antihyperglycaemic effects of Sphaeranthus indicus extract in rats rendered diabetic by nicotinamide (120 mg kg-1 i.p.) and streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg kg-1 i.p). Fasting plasma glucose levels, serum insulin levels, serum lipid profiles, magnesium levels, glycosylated haemoglobin, changes in body weight and liver glycogen levels were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats. Oral administration of S. indicus for 15 days resulted in significant decrease in blood glucose levels and increases in hepatic glycogen and plasma insulin levels. Fasting normal rats treated with the alcoholic extract of S. indicus showed significant improvement in oral glucose tolerance test. Glibenclamide was used as a reference standard. The findings demonstrate that the alcoholic S. indicus extract may be useful in the treatment of diabetes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)909-916
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Volume60
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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Asteraceae
Niacinamide
Streptozocin
Hypoglycemic Agents
Liver Glycogen
Fasting
Insulin
Body Weight Changes
Glyburide
Glycosylated Hemoglobin A
Glucose Tolerance Test
Serum
Magnesium
Oral Administration
Blood Glucose
Lipids
Glucose
Therapeutics

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@article{de6bcb32120d4daf8fd9c5d358b031ed,
title = "Antidiabetic properties of the alcoholic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus in streptozotocin-nicotinamide diabetic rats",
abstract = "We have investigated the possible antihyperglycaemic effects of Sphaeranthus indicus extract in rats rendered diabetic by nicotinamide (120 mg kg-1 i.p.) and streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg kg-1 i.p). Fasting plasma glucose levels, serum insulin levels, serum lipid profiles, magnesium levels, glycosylated haemoglobin, changes in body weight and liver glycogen levels were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats. Oral administration of S. indicus for 15 days resulted in significant decrease in blood glucose levels and increases in hepatic glycogen and plasma insulin levels. Fasting normal rats treated with the alcoholic extract of S. indicus showed significant improvement in oral glucose tolerance test. Glibenclamide was used as a reference standard. The findings demonstrate that the alcoholic S. indicus extract may be useful in the treatment of diabetes.",
author = "K.S. Prabhu and R. Lobo and A. Shirwaikar",
note = "Cited By :25 Export Date: 10 November 2017 CODEN: JPPMA Correspondence Address: Shirwaikar, A.; Department of Pharmacognosy, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Science, Manipal-576104, India; email: annieshirwaikar@yahoo.com Chemicals/CAS: alcohol, 64-17-5; glibenclamide, 10238-21-8; glucose, 50-99-7, 84778-64-3; glycogen, 9005-79-2; glycosylated hemoglobin, 9062-63-9; insulin, 9004-10-8; lipid, 66455-18-3; magnesium, 7439-95-4; nicotinamide, 11032-50-1, 98-92-0; streptozocin, 18883-66-4; Blood Glucose; Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; Hypoglycemic Agents; Insulin, 11061-68-0; Lipids; Liver Glycogen; Magnesium, 7439-95-4; Niacinamide, 98-92-0; Plant Extracts; Streptozocin, 18883-66-4 References: Ambavade, S.D., Mhetre, N.A., Tate, V.D., Bodhankar, S.L., Pharmacological evaluation of the extracts of Sphaearanthus indicus flowers on anxiolytic activity in mice (2006) Indian J. Pharmacol, 38, pp. 254-259; Aybar, M.J., Sanchez Riera, A.N., Grau, A., Sanchez, S.S., Hypoglycaemic effect of the water extract of Smallanthus soncifolius (yacon) leaves in normal and diabetic rats (2001) J. Ethnopharmacol, 74, pp. 125-132; Bailey, C.J., Day, C., Traditional treatments for diabetes (1989) Diabetes Care, 12, pp. 553-564; Baslas, K. K. (1959) Essential oil from Sphaeranthus indicus. Perfumery Essential Oil Records 50: 765; Basu, N.K., Lamsal, P.P., Chemical investigation of Sphaeranthus indicus (1946) J. Am. Assoc, 35, pp. 274-275; Bonner-weir, S., Morphological evidence of pancreatic polarity of beta cells within islets of Langerhans (1988) Diabetes, 37, pp. 616-621; Chase, P.H., Glasgow, A.M., Juvenile diabetes mellitus and serum lipids and lipoprotein levels (1976) Am. J. Dis. Child, 130, pp. 1113-1117; Chatterjee, M. N., Shinde, R. (1994) Metabolism of carbohydrates In: Chatterjee, M. N., Shinde, R. (eds) Textbook of medical biochemistry. 1st edn, JayPee Publications, New Delhi, India, pp 421; Garfinkel, D., Magnesium and regulation of carbohydrate metabolism at the molecular level (1988) Magnesium, 7, pp. 249-261; Garg, S.C., Kasera, H.L., Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn (1982) Pafai J, 4, pp. 23-24; Gogate, M.G., Ananthasubramaniam, L., Nargund, K.S., Bhattacharyya, S.C., Some sesquiterpinoids from Sphaeranthus indicus (1986) Indian J. Chem, 25 B, pp. 233-238; Gomes, A., Vedasiromoni, J.R., Das, M., Sharma, R.M., Ganguly, D.K., Anti-hyperglycaemic effect of black tea (Camellia sinensis) in rats (1995) J. Ethnopharmacol, 27, pp. 243-275; Hakim, Z.S., Patel, B.K., Goyal, R.K., Effects of chronic ramipril treatment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (1997) Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol, 41, pp. 353-360; Huang, X., Vaag, A., Hanson, M., Weng, J., Goop, L., Impaired insulin stimulated expression of the glycogen synthase gene in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients is aquired rather than inherited (2000) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab, 85, pp. 1584-1590; Humaira, Y.S., Tripathi, L., Bhattacharya, S., Antidiabetic plants used by tribals of Madhya Pradesh (2004) Natural Product Radiance, 3, p. 427; Kirtikar, K. R., Basu, B. D. (1987) Indian medicinal plants, 2nd edn, L. M. Basu Publication, Allahabad, India, pp 1347; Koenig, R.J., Peterson, C.M., Jones, R.L., Saudek, C., Lehrman, M., Cerami, A., Correlation of glucose regulation and haemoglobin A1c in diabetes mellitus (1976) N. Engl. J. Med, 295, pp. 417-420; Lopez-Ridaura, R., Willett, W.C., Rimm, E.B., Liu, S., Stampfer, M.J., Manson, J.E., Hu, F.B., Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women (2004) Diabetes Care, 27, pp. 134-140; Masiello, P., Broca, C., Gross, R., Roye, M., Manteghetti, M., Hillaire-Buys, D., Novelli, M., Ribes, G., Development of a new model of type 2 diabetes in adult rats administered with streptozotocin and nicotinamide (1998) Diabetes, 47, pp. 224-230; Nicholas, V., Robert, W.L., Roe, J.H., The determination of glycogen in liver and muscle by use of anthrone reagent (1956) J. Biol. Chem, 220, pp. 583-593; Nikkila, E.A., Kekki, M., Plasma transport kinetics in diabetes mellitus (1973) Metabolism, 22, p. 1; Paranjape P. (2001) Indian medicinal plants. In: Paranjape, P. (ed) Forgotten healer a guide to Ayurvedic herbal medicine. 1st edn, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratisthan, Delhi, India, pp 148-149; Rahman, A.U., Zaman, K., Medicinal plants with hypoglycaemic activity (1989) J. Ethnopharmacol, 26, pp. 1-55; Rajkumar, L., Srinivasan, N., Balasubramanian, K., Govindarajulu, P., Increased degradation of dermal collagen in diabetic rats (1991) Indian J. Exp. Biol, 29, pp. 1081-1083; Sadaf, F., Saleem, R., Ahmed, M., Ahmad, S., Navaid-ul-Zafar, I., Healing potential of cream containing extract of Sphaeranthus indicus on dermal wounds in Guinea pigs (2006) J. Ethnopharmacol, 107, pp. 161-163; Sasaki, T., Matsy, S., Sonae, A., Effect of acetic acid concentration on the colour reaction in the o-toluidine boric acid method for blood glucose estimation (1972) Rinsho. Kagaku, 1, pp. 346-353; Setter, M.S., White, J.R., Campbell, R.K., Diabetes mellitus (2000) Herfindals Textbook of therapeutic drug and disease management, pp. 377-405. , 6th edn. Philadelphia, Lippincott William & Willkins. pp; Sheikh, D., Naqvi, B.S., Shaikh, R., The antibacterial principles of Sphaeranthus indicus isolation, purification and antimicrobial action (1986) Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res, 25, pp. 366-371; Shekhani, M.S., Shah, P.M., Yasmin, A., Siddiqui, R., Perveen, S., Khan, K.M., ur-Rehman, A., An immunostimulant sesquiterpene glycoside from Sphaeranthus indicus (1990) Phytochemistry, 29, pp. 2573-2576; Shirwaikar, A., Rajendran, K., Kumar, C.D., Oral antidiabetic activity of Annona squamosa leaf alcohol extract in NIDDM rats (2004) Pharm. Biol, 42, pp. 30-35; Shirwaikar, A., Rajendran, K., Punitha, I.S.R., Antihyperglycemic activity of the aqueous stem extract of Coscinium fenestratum in non-insulin dependent diabetic rats (2005) Pharmacol. Biol, 43, pp. 707-712; Shirwaikar, A., Prabhu, K., Kumar, C.D., Rajendran, K., Lobo, R., Pharmacognostical evaluation of Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn) (2006) Nat Prod. Sci, 12, pp. 85-88; Singh, S.N., Vats, P., Suri, S., Shyam, R., Kumria, M.M., Ranganathan, S., Sridharan, K., Effect of an antidiabetic extract of Cathanranthus roseus on enzymatic activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats (2001) J. Ethnopharmacol, 76, pp. 269-277; Srivastawa, S.C., Khan, M.S., Vohra, S.B., Pharmacological and haemostatic investigations on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn (1971) Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol, 15, pp. 27-33; Subash Babu, P., Prince, S.M., Antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of hyponidd, an ayurvedic herbomineral formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (2004) J. Pharm. Pharmacol, 56, pp. 1435-1442; Tietz, N. W., Wu, A. H. B.(1995) In: Tietz, N. W., Wu, A. H. B.(eds) Tietz clinical guide to laboratory tests. 3rd edn, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 130-131, 610-611, 824-843; Vertommen, J., Van den Enden, M., Simoens, L., De Leeuw, I., Flavonoid treatment reduces glycation and lipid peroxidation in experimental diabetic rats (1994) Phytother. Res, 8, pp. 430-432; Whitton, P.D., Hems, D.A., Glycogen synthesis in perfused liver of streptozotocin diabetic rats (1975) Biochem. J, 150, pp. 153-159; Wilson, M.A., Miles, L.E.M., Radioimmunoassay of insulin (1977) Handbook of radioimmunoassay, pp. 275-279. , Wilson, M. A, Miles, L. E. M, eds, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp; Yadav, R.N., Kumar, S., 7-Hydroxy-3′, 4′, 5, 6-tetramethoxy flavone 7-O-b-D-(1-4)-diglucoside, a new flavone glycoside from the stem of Sphaeranthus indicus (1998) J. Inst. Chem, 70, pp. 164-166; Ye, F., Shen, Z., Xie, M., Alpha glucosidase inhibition from a Chinese medicinal herb (Ramulus mori) in normal and diabetic rats and mice (2002) Phytomedicine, 9, pp. 161-166",
year = "2008",
doi = "10.1211/jpp.60.7.0013",
language = "English",
volume = "60",
pages = "909--916",
journal = "Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology",
issn = "0022-3573",
publisher = "Pharmaceutical Press",
number = "7",

}

Antidiabetic properties of the alcoholic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus in streptozotocin-nicotinamide diabetic rats. / Prabhu, K.S.; Lobo, R.; Shirwaikar, A.

In: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol. 60, No. 7, 2008, p. 909-916.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Antidiabetic properties of the alcoholic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus in streptozotocin-nicotinamide diabetic rats

AU - Prabhu, K.S.

AU - Lobo, R.

AU - Shirwaikar, A.

N1 - Cited By :25 Export Date: 10 November 2017 CODEN: JPPMA Correspondence Address: Shirwaikar, A.; Department of Pharmacognosy, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Science, Manipal-576104, India; email: annieshirwaikar@yahoo.com Chemicals/CAS: alcohol, 64-17-5; glibenclamide, 10238-21-8; glucose, 50-99-7, 84778-64-3; glycogen, 9005-79-2; glycosylated hemoglobin, 9062-63-9; insulin, 9004-10-8; lipid, 66455-18-3; magnesium, 7439-95-4; nicotinamide, 11032-50-1, 98-92-0; streptozocin, 18883-66-4; Blood Glucose; Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; Hypoglycemic Agents; Insulin, 11061-68-0; Lipids; Liver Glycogen; Magnesium, 7439-95-4; Niacinamide, 98-92-0; Plant Extracts; Streptozocin, 18883-66-4 References: Ambavade, S.D., Mhetre, N.A., Tate, V.D., Bodhankar, S.L., Pharmacological evaluation of the extracts of Sphaearanthus indicus flowers on anxiolytic activity in mice (2006) Indian J. Pharmacol, 38, pp. 254-259; Aybar, M.J., Sanchez Riera, A.N., Grau, A., Sanchez, S.S., Hypoglycaemic effect of the water extract of Smallanthus soncifolius (yacon) leaves in normal and diabetic rats (2001) J. Ethnopharmacol, 74, pp. 125-132; Bailey, C.J., Day, C., Traditional treatments for diabetes (1989) Diabetes Care, 12, pp. 553-564; Baslas, K. K. (1959) Essential oil from Sphaeranthus indicus. Perfumery Essential Oil Records 50: 765; Basu, N.K., Lamsal, P.P., Chemical investigation of Sphaeranthus indicus (1946) J. Am. Assoc, 35, pp. 274-275; Bonner-weir, S., Morphological evidence of pancreatic polarity of beta cells within islets of Langerhans (1988) Diabetes, 37, pp. 616-621; Chase, P.H., Glasgow, A.M., Juvenile diabetes mellitus and serum lipids and lipoprotein levels (1976) Am. J. Dis. Child, 130, pp. 1113-1117; Chatterjee, M. N., Shinde, R. (1994) Metabolism of carbohydrates In: Chatterjee, M. N., Shinde, R. (eds) Textbook of medical biochemistry. 1st edn, JayPee Publications, New Delhi, India, pp 421; Garfinkel, D., Magnesium and regulation of carbohydrate metabolism at the molecular level (1988) Magnesium, 7, pp. 249-261; Garg, S.C., Kasera, H.L., Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn (1982) Pafai J, 4, pp. 23-24; Gogate, M.G., Ananthasubramaniam, L., Nargund, K.S., Bhattacharyya, S.C., Some sesquiterpinoids from Sphaeranthus indicus (1986) Indian J. Chem, 25 B, pp. 233-238; Gomes, A., Vedasiromoni, J.R., Das, M., Sharma, R.M., Ganguly, D.K., Anti-hyperglycaemic effect of black tea (Camellia sinensis) in rats (1995) J. Ethnopharmacol, 27, pp. 243-275; Hakim, Z.S., Patel, B.K., Goyal, R.K., Effects of chronic ramipril treatment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (1997) Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol, 41, pp. 353-360; Huang, X., Vaag, A., Hanson, M., Weng, J., Goop, L., Impaired insulin stimulated expression of the glycogen synthase gene in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients is aquired rather than inherited (2000) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab, 85, pp. 1584-1590; Humaira, Y.S., Tripathi, L., Bhattacharya, S., Antidiabetic plants used by tribals of Madhya Pradesh (2004) Natural Product Radiance, 3, p. 427; Kirtikar, K. R., Basu, B. D. (1987) Indian medicinal plants, 2nd edn, L. M. Basu Publication, Allahabad, India, pp 1347; Koenig, R.J., Peterson, C.M., Jones, R.L., Saudek, C., Lehrman, M., Cerami, A., Correlation of glucose regulation and haemoglobin A1c in diabetes mellitus (1976) N. Engl. J. Med, 295, pp. 417-420; Lopez-Ridaura, R., Willett, W.C., Rimm, E.B., Liu, S., Stampfer, M.J., Manson, J.E., Hu, F.B., Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women (2004) Diabetes Care, 27, pp. 134-140; Masiello, P., Broca, C., Gross, R., Roye, M., Manteghetti, M., Hillaire-Buys, D., Novelli, M., Ribes, G., Development of a new model of type 2 diabetes in adult rats administered with streptozotocin and nicotinamide (1998) Diabetes, 47, pp. 224-230; Nicholas, V., Robert, W.L., Roe, J.H., The determination of glycogen in liver and muscle by use of anthrone reagent (1956) J. Biol. Chem, 220, pp. 583-593; Nikkila, E.A., Kekki, M., Plasma transport kinetics in diabetes mellitus (1973) Metabolism, 22, p. 1; Paranjape P. (2001) Indian medicinal plants. In: Paranjape, P. (ed) Forgotten healer a guide to Ayurvedic herbal medicine. 1st edn, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratisthan, Delhi, India, pp 148-149; Rahman, A.U., Zaman, K., Medicinal plants with hypoglycaemic activity (1989) J. Ethnopharmacol, 26, pp. 1-55; Rajkumar, L., Srinivasan, N., Balasubramanian, K., Govindarajulu, P., Increased degradation of dermal collagen in diabetic rats (1991) Indian J. Exp. Biol, 29, pp. 1081-1083; Sadaf, F., Saleem, R., Ahmed, M., Ahmad, S., Navaid-ul-Zafar, I., Healing potential of cream containing extract of Sphaeranthus indicus on dermal wounds in Guinea pigs (2006) J. Ethnopharmacol, 107, pp. 161-163; Sasaki, T., Matsy, S., Sonae, A., Effect of acetic acid concentration on the colour reaction in the o-toluidine boric acid method for blood glucose estimation (1972) Rinsho. Kagaku, 1, pp. 346-353; Setter, M.S., White, J.R., Campbell, R.K., Diabetes mellitus (2000) Herfindals Textbook of therapeutic drug and disease management, pp. 377-405. , 6th edn. Philadelphia, Lippincott William & Willkins. pp; Sheikh, D., Naqvi, B.S., Shaikh, R., The antibacterial principles of Sphaeranthus indicus isolation, purification and antimicrobial action (1986) Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res, 25, pp. 366-371; Shekhani, M.S., Shah, P.M., Yasmin, A., Siddiqui, R., Perveen, S., Khan, K.M., ur-Rehman, A., An immunostimulant sesquiterpene glycoside from Sphaeranthus indicus (1990) Phytochemistry, 29, pp. 2573-2576; Shirwaikar, A., Rajendran, K., Kumar, C.D., Oral antidiabetic activity of Annona squamosa leaf alcohol extract in NIDDM rats (2004) Pharm. Biol, 42, pp. 30-35; Shirwaikar, A., Rajendran, K., Punitha, I.S.R., Antihyperglycemic activity of the aqueous stem extract of Coscinium fenestratum in non-insulin dependent diabetic rats (2005) Pharmacol. Biol, 43, pp. 707-712; Shirwaikar, A., Prabhu, K., Kumar, C.D., Rajendran, K., Lobo, R., Pharmacognostical evaluation of Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn) (2006) Nat Prod. Sci, 12, pp. 85-88; Singh, S.N., Vats, P., Suri, S., Shyam, R., Kumria, M.M., Ranganathan, S., Sridharan, K., Effect of an antidiabetic extract of Cathanranthus roseus on enzymatic activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats (2001) J. Ethnopharmacol, 76, pp. 269-277; Srivastawa, S.C., Khan, M.S., Vohra, S.B., Pharmacological and haemostatic investigations on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn (1971) Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol, 15, pp. 27-33; Subash Babu, P., Prince, S.M., Antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of hyponidd, an ayurvedic herbomineral formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (2004) J. Pharm. Pharmacol, 56, pp. 1435-1442; Tietz, N. W., Wu, A. H. B.(1995) In: Tietz, N. W., Wu, A. H. B.(eds) Tietz clinical guide to laboratory tests. 3rd edn, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 130-131, 610-611, 824-843; Vertommen, J., Van den Enden, M., Simoens, L., De Leeuw, I., Flavonoid treatment reduces glycation and lipid peroxidation in experimental diabetic rats (1994) Phytother. Res, 8, pp. 430-432; Whitton, P.D., Hems, D.A., Glycogen synthesis in perfused liver of streptozotocin diabetic rats (1975) Biochem. J, 150, pp. 153-159; Wilson, M.A., Miles, L.E.M., Radioimmunoassay of insulin (1977) Handbook of radioimmunoassay, pp. 275-279. , Wilson, M. A, Miles, L. E. M, eds, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp; Yadav, R.N., Kumar, S., 7-Hydroxy-3′, 4′, 5, 6-tetramethoxy flavone 7-O-b-D-(1-4)-diglucoside, a new flavone glycoside from the stem of Sphaeranthus indicus (1998) J. Inst. Chem, 70, pp. 164-166; Ye, F., Shen, Z., Xie, M., Alpha glucosidase inhibition from a Chinese medicinal herb (Ramulus mori) in normal and diabetic rats and mice (2002) Phytomedicine, 9, pp. 161-166

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - We have investigated the possible antihyperglycaemic effects of Sphaeranthus indicus extract in rats rendered diabetic by nicotinamide (120 mg kg-1 i.p.) and streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg kg-1 i.p). Fasting plasma glucose levels, serum insulin levels, serum lipid profiles, magnesium levels, glycosylated haemoglobin, changes in body weight and liver glycogen levels were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats. Oral administration of S. indicus for 15 days resulted in significant decrease in blood glucose levels and increases in hepatic glycogen and plasma insulin levels. Fasting normal rats treated with the alcoholic extract of S. indicus showed significant improvement in oral glucose tolerance test. Glibenclamide was used as a reference standard. The findings demonstrate that the alcoholic S. indicus extract may be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

AB - We have investigated the possible antihyperglycaemic effects of Sphaeranthus indicus extract in rats rendered diabetic by nicotinamide (120 mg kg-1 i.p.) and streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg kg-1 i.p). Fasting plasma glucose levels, serum insulin levels, serum lipid profiles, magnesium levels, glycosylated haemoglobin, changes in body weight and liver glycogen levels were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats. Oral administration of S. indicus for 15 days resulted in significant decrease in blood glucose levels and increases in hepatic glycogen and plasma insulin levels. Fasting normal rats treated with the alcoholic extract of S. indicus showed significant improvement in oral glucose tolerance test. Glibenclamide was used as a reference standard. The findings demonstrate that the alcoholic S. indicus extract may be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

U2 - 10.1211/jpp.60.7.0013

DO - 10.1211/jpp.60.7.0013

M3 - Article

VL - 60

SP - 909

EP - 916

JO - Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

JF - Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

SN - 0022-3573

IS - 7

ER -