Antidiarrheal activity of stem bark extracts od Spathodea companulata in rodents

S. Rajesh, G.L. Viswanatha, H. Shylaja, D. Manohar, M. Handral, K. Nandakumar, R. Srinath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The objective of the study is to investigate the aqueous (AQSP) and alcoholic extracts (ALSP) of stem barks of Spathodea companulata (Bignoniaceae) for their antidiarrheal activity in rodents. Stem bark was extracted with alcohol and water successively. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out to identify various phytochemical constituents present in the extracts. It was found that the ALSP contains alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds; AQSP contained carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. Acute oral toxicity of ALSP and AQSP were conducted as per OECD guidelines 425. Acute toxicity studies revealed that both the extracts are safe upto 2000mg/kg. The antidiarrheal activity was observed in three experimentally induced diarrhea models i.e. Castor oil induced diarrhea; Prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2) induced enteropooling in rats and charcoal meal test in mice. In castor oil induced model ALSP and AQSP showed significant dose dependent reduction of cumulative wet faecal mass. In PG-E2 induced enteropooling model, ALSP (50,100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) and AQSP (50,100 and 200mg/kg, p.o) inhibit PG-E2 induced secretions. Similarly in charcoal meal test ALSP and AQSP decreased the movement of charcoal indicating its antimotility activity. It was observed that AQSP is having more potent anti-diarrheal activity than ALSP in these models.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)396-405
Number of pages10
JournalPharmacologyonline
Volume1
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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Antidiarrheals
Charcoal
Dinoprostone
Castor Oil
Rodentia
Tannins
Saponins
Phytochemicals
Glycosides
Flavonoids
Meals
Diarrhea
Bignoniaceae
Carbohydrates
Alkaloids
Steroids
Alcohols
Guidelines
Water

Cite this

Rajesh, S., Viswanatha, G. L., Shylaja, H., Manohar, D., Handral, M., Nandakumar, K., & Srinath, R. (2009). Antidiarrheal activity of stem bark extracts od Spathodea companulata in rodents. Pharmacologyonline, 1, 396-405.
Rajesh, S. ; Viswanatha, G.L. ; Shylaja, H. ; Manohar, D. ; Handral, M. ; Nandakumar, K. ; Srinath, R. / Antidiarrheal activity of stem bark extracts od Spathodea companulata in rodents. In: Pharmacologyonline. 2009 ; Vol. 1. pp. 396-405.
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title = "Antidiarrheal activity of stem bark extracts od Spathodea companulata in rodents",
abstract = "The objective of the study is to investigate the aqueous (AQSP) and alcoholic extracts (ALSP) of stem barks of Spathodea companulata (Bignoniaceae) for their antidiarrheal activity in rodents. Stem bark was extracted with alcohol and water successively. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out to identify various phytochemical constituents present in the extracts. It was found that the ALSP contains alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds; AQSP contained carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. Acute oral toxicity of ALSP and AQSP were conducted as per OECD guidelines 425. Acute toxicity studies revealed that both the extracts are safe upto 2000mg/kg. The antidiarrheal activity was observed in three experimentally induced diarrhea models i.e. Castor oil induced diarrhea; Prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2) induced enteropooling in rats and charcoal meal test in mice. In castor oil induced model ALSP and AQSP showed significant dose dependent reduction of cumulative wet faecal mass. In PG-E2 induced enteropooling model, ALSP (50,100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) and AQSP (50,100 and 200mg/kg, p.o) inhibit PG-E2 induced secretions. Similarly in charcoal meal test ALSP and AQSP decreased the movement of charcoal indicating its antimotility activity. It was observed that AQSP is having more potent anti-diarrheal activity than ALSP in these models.",
author = "S. Rajesh and G.L. Viswanatha and H. Shylaja and D. Manohar and M. Handral and K. Nandakumar and R. Srinath",
note = "Cited By :1 Export Date: 10 November 2017 Correspondence Address: Viswanath, G.L.; Department of Pharmacology, PES College of Pharmacy, Hanumanthanagar, Bangalore-560050, India; email: glv_000@yahoo.com Chemicals/CAS: atropine, 51-55-8, 55-48-1; castor oil, 8001-79-4; charcoal, 16291-96-6; loperamide, 34552-83-5, 53179-11-6; phenol, 108-95-2, 3229-70-7; prostaglandin E2, 363-24-6; saponin, 8047-15-2; tannin, 1401-55-4 Manufacturers: SD, India; Torrent, India References: Synder, J.D., Merson, M.H., The magnitude of the global problem of the acute diarrhea disease. A review of active surveillance of data (1982) Bull WHO, 60, pp. 605-613; Thompson, W.G., Longstreth, G.F., Drossman, D.A., Heaton, K.W., Irvine, E.J., Muller, L.S.A., Fuctional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain (1999) Gut, 45 (12), pp. 43-47; Rani, S., Ahmed, N., Rajaram, S., Antidirrheal evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. Leaf extract in rats (1999) J Ethnopharmacol, 68, pp. 315-319; Kumar, S., Dewan, S., Sangrula, H., Kumar, V.L., Antidiarrheal activity of the leaf extract of calotropis procera (2001) J Ethnopharmacol, 76, pp. 116-118; Viswanath, G.L., Srinath, R., Nandakumar, K., Shylaja, H., Lakshman, K., Antidiarrheal activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem bark of Thespesia populnea in rodents (2007) Pharmacologyonline, 3, pp. 222-230; Rangasamy, D., Asirvatham, D., Subbu, B., Ethiraj, K., Muthusamy, J., Haldurai, K., In vitro Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Organic Leaf Extracts of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv against Hospital Isolated Bacterial Strains (2008) Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 12, pp. 1022-1028; Niyonzima G, Laekeman G, Witvrouw M, VanPoel B, Pieters L, Paper D, Clercq E, Franz G, Vlietinck AJ. Hypoglycemic, anticomplement and anti-HIV activities of Spathodea campanulata stem bark. Phytomedicine 1999; 6 (1); 45-49; Makinde, J.M., Amusan, O.O.G., Adesogan, E.K., The antimalarial activity of Spathodea campanulata stems bark extract on Plasmodium berghei berghei in mice (1988) Planta Medica, 54 (2), pp. 122-125; Rojas, R., Bustamante, B., Bauer, J., Fernandez, I., Alban, J., Lock, O., Antimicrobial activity of selected Peruvian medicinal plants (2003) J.Ethnopharmacol, 88, pp. 199-204; Parekh, J., Chanda, S., In vitro screening of antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of various Indian plant species against selected pathogens from Enterobacteriaceae (2007) African Journal of Microbiology Research, 1 (6), pp. 092-099; Khandelwal KR.Practical Pharmacognosy-techniques and experiments.Pune, India; Nirali Prakashan; 1996; Trease, G.S., Evans, H.C., Textbook of Pharmacognosy (1978) Bailiar Zindall And Co, , 9th edition, London; OECD 2001 - guideline on acute oral toxicity (AOT) Environmental health and safety series on testing and adjustment no. 425; Awouters, F., Nimegrees, C.J.E., Lanaerts, F.M., Janssen, P.A.J., Delay of caster oil diarrhea in rats: A new way to evaluate inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis (1978) J Pharm Pharmacol, 30, pp. 41-45; Patel NJ, Gujarati VB, Gouda TS, VenkatRao N, Nandakumar K, Shantakumar SM;. Antidiarrheal activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of roots of Tylophora indica (Wight and Arn.) in Rodents.Pharmacologyonline 1: 2006.19-29; Ammon, H.V., Thomas, P.J., Philips, S., Effect of oleic and ricinoleic acid on jejunal water and electrolyte movement (1974) J Clin Inves, 53, pp. 374-379; Gaginella, T.S., Stewart, J.J., Olson, W.A., Bass, P., actions of ricinoleisc acid and structurally related fatty acids on the gastrointestinal tract II. Effects on water and electrolyte absorption in vitro (1975) J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 195, pp. 355-361; Luderer, J.R., Dermers, I.M., Hayes, A.T., (1980) Advance in prostaglandin and thromboxane research, , New York: Raven Press; Beubler, E., Juan, H., Effect of ricinoleic acid and other laxatives on net water flux and prostaglandin E release by the rat colon (1979) J Pharm Pharmacol, 31, pp. 681-685; Pierce, N.F., Carpenter, C.C.J., Elliot, H.Z., Greenough, W.B., Effects of prostaglandins, theophylline and cholera exotoxin upon transmucosal water and electrolyte movement in canine jejunum (1971) Gastroenterology, 60, pp. 22-32; Eakins, K.E., Sanner, J.M., Prostaglandins antagonists (1972) Prostaglandins progress in Research, pp. 263-264. , Karim SMM ed, New York: Wiley-Interscience; Dajani, E.Z., Roge, E.A.N., Bertermann, R.E., Effects of E Prostaglandins, diphenoxylate and morphine on intestinal motility in vitro (1975) Eur J Pharmacol, 34, pp. 105-113; Levy G. gastrointestinal clearance of drugs with activated charcoal. New Eng J Med 1982; 307:676-678UR - https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-65549117899&partnerID=40&md5=dd803a824a139c5cfcbc802b2fa44518",
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journal = "Pharmacologyonline",
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Rajesh, S, Viswanatha, GL, Shylaja, H, Manohar, D, Handral, M, Nandakumar, K & Srinath, R 2009, 'Antidiarrheal activity of stem bark extracts od Spathodea companulata in rodents', Pharmacologyonline, vol. 1, pp. 396-405.

Antidiarrheal activity of stem bark extracts od Spathodea companulata in rodents. / Rajesh, S.; Viswanatha, G.L.; Shylaja, H.; Manohar, D.; Handral, M.; Nandakumar, K.; Srinath, R.

In: Pharmacologyonline, Vol. 1, 2009, p. 396-405.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Antidiarrheal activity of stem bark extracts od Spathodea companulata in rodents

AU - Rajesh, S.

AU - Viswanatha, G.L.

AU - Shylaja, H.

AU - Manohar, D.

AU - Handral, M.

AU - Nandakumar, K.

AU - Srinath, R.

N1 - Cited By :1 Export Date: 10 November 2017 Correspondence Address: Viswanath, G.L.; Department of Pharmacology, PES College of Pharmacy, Hanumanthanagar, Bangalore-560050, India; email: glv_000@yahoo.com Chemicals/CAS: atropine, 51-55-8, 55-48-1; castor oil, 8001-79-4; charcoal, 16291-96-6; loperamide, 34552-83-5, 53179-11-6; phenol, 108-95-2, 3229-70-7; prostaglandin E2, 363-24-6; saponin, 8047-15-2; tannin, 1401-55-4 Manufacturers: SD, India; Torrent, India References: Synder, J.D., Merson, M.H., The magnitude of the global problem of the acute diarrhea disease. A review of active surveillance of data (1982) Bull WHO, 60, pp. 605-613; Thompson, W.G., Longstreth, G.F., Drossman, D.A., Heaton, K.W., Irvine, E.J., Muller, L.S.A., Fuctional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain (1999) Gut, 45 (12), pp. 43-47; Rani, S., Ahmed, N., Rajaram, S., Antidirrheal evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. Leaf extract in rats (1999) J Ethnopharmacol, 68, pp. 315-319; Kumar, S., Dewan, S., Sangrula, H., Kumar, V.L., Antidiarrheal activity of the leaf extract of calotropis procera (2001) J Ethnopharmacol, 76, pp. 116-118; Viswanath, G.L., Srinath, R., Nandakumar, K., Shylaja, H., Lakshman, K., Antidiarrheal activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem bark of Thespesia populnea in rodents (2007) Pharmacologyonline, 3, pp. 222-230; Rangasamy, D., Asirvatham, D., Subbu, B., Ethiraj, K., Muthusamy, J., Haldurai, K., In vitro Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Organic Leaf Extracts of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv against Hospital Isolated Bacterial Strains (2008) Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 12, pp. 1022-1028; Niyonzima G, Laekeman G, Witvrouw M, VanPoel B, Pieters L, Paper D, Clercq E, Franz G, Vlietinck AJ. Hypoglycemic, anticomplement and anti-HIV activities of Spathodea campanulata stem bark. Phytomedicine 1999; 6 (1); 45-49; Makinde, J.M., Amusan, O.O.G., Adesogan, E.K., The antimalarial activity of Spathodea campanulata stems bark extract on Plasmodium berghei berghei in mice (1988) Planta Medica, 54 (2), pp. 122-125; Rojas, R., Bustamante, B., Bauer, J., Fernandez, I., Alban, J., Lock, O., Antimicrobial activity of selected Peruvian medicinal plants (2003) J.Ethnopharmacol, 88, pp. 199-204; Parekh, J., Chanda, S., In vitro screening of antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of various Indian plant species against selected pathogens from Enterobacteriaceae (2007) African Journal of Microbiology Research, 1 (6), pp. 092-099; Khandelwal KR.Practical Pharmacognosy-techniques and experiments.Pune, India; Nirali Prakashan; 1996; Trease, G.S., Evans, H.C., Textbook of Pharmacognosy (1978) Bailiar Zindall And Co, , 9th edition, London; OECD 2001 - guideline on acute oral toxicity (AOT) Environmental health and safety series on testing and adjustment no. 425; Awouters, F., Nimegrees, C.J.E., Lanaerts, F.M., Janssen, P.A.J., Delay of caster oil diarrhea in rats: A new way to evaluate inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis (1978) J Pharm Pharmacol, 30, pp. 41-45; Patel NJ, Gujarati VB, Gouda TS, VenkatRao N, Nandakumar K, Shantakumar SM;. Antidiarrheal activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of roots of Tylophora indica (Wight and Arn.) in Rodents.Pharmacologyonline 1: 2006.19-29; Ammon, H.V., Thomas, P.J., Philips, S., Effect of oleic and ricinoleic acid on jejunal water and electrolyte movement (1974) J Clin Inves, 53, pp. 374-379; Gaginella, T.S., Stewart, J.J., Olson, W.A., Bass, P., actions of ricinoleisc acid and structurally related fatty acids on the gastrointestinal tract II. Effects on water and electrolyte absorption in vitro (1975) J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 195, pp. 355-361; Luderer, J.R., Dermers, I.M., Hayes, A.T., (1980) Advance in prostaglandin and thromboxane research, , New York: Raven Press; Beubler, E., Juan, H., Effect of ricinoleic acid and other laxatives on net water flux and prostaglandin E release by the rat colon (1979) J Pharm Pharmacol, 31, pp. 681-685; Pierce, N.F., Carpenter, C.C.J., Elliot, H.Z., Greenough, W.B., Effects of prostaglandins, theophylline and cholera exotoxin upon transmucosal water and electrolyte movement in canine jejunum (1971) Gastroenterology, 60, pp. 22-32; Eakins, K.E., Sanner, J.M., Prostaglandins antagonists (1972) Prostaglandins progress in Research, pp. 263-264. , Karim SMM ed, New York: Wiley-Interscience; Dajani, E.Z., Roge, E.A.N., Bertermann, R.E., Effects of E Prostaglandins, diphenoxylate and morphine on intestinal motility in vitro (1975) Eur J Pharmacol, 34, pp. 105-113; Levy G. gastrointestinal clearance of drugs with activated charcoal. New Eng J Med 1982; 307:676-678UR - https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-65549117899&partnerID=40&md5=dd803a824a139c5cfcbc802b2fa44518

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - The objective of the study is to investigate the aqueous (AQSP) and alcoholic extracts (ALSP) of stem barks of Spathodea companulata (Bignoniaceae) for their antidiarrheal activity in rodents. Stem bark was extracted with alcohol and water successively. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out to identify various phytochemical constituents present in the extracts. It was found that the ALSP contains alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds; AQSP contained carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. Acute oral toxicity of ALSP and AQSP were conducted as per OECD guidelines 425. Acute toxicity studies revealed that both the extracts are safe upto 2000mg/kg. The antidiarrheal activity was observed in three experimentally induced diarrhea models i.e. Castor oil induced diarrhea; Prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2) induced enteropooling in rats and charcoal meal test in mice. In castor oil induced model ALSP and AQSP showed significant dose dependent reduction of cumulative wet faecal mass. In PG-E2 induced enteropooling model, ALSP (50,100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) and AQSP (50,100 and 200mg/kg, p.o) inhibit PG-E2 induced secretions. Similarly in charcoal meal test ALSP and AQSP decreased the movement of charcoal indicating its antimotility activity. It was observed that AQSP is having more potent anti-diarrheal activity than ALSP in these models.

AB - The objective of the study is to investigate the aqueous (AQSP) and alcoholic extracts (ALSP) of stem barks of Spathodea companulata (Bignoniaceae) for their antidiarrheal activity in rodents. Stem bark was extracted with alcohol and water successively. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out to identify various phytochemical constituents present in the extracts. It was found that the ALSP contains alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds; AQSP contained carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. Acute oral toxicity of ALSP and AQSP were conducted as per OECD guidelines 425. Acute toxicity studies revealed that both the extracts are safe upto 2000mg/kg. The antidiarrheal activity was observed in three experimentally induced diarrhea models i.e. Castor oil induced diarrhea; Prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2) induced enteropooling in rats and charcoal meal test in mice. In castor oil induced model ALSP and AQSP showed significant dose dependent reduction of cumulative wet faecal mass. In PG-E2 induced enteropooling model, ALSP (50,100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) and AQSP (50,100 and 200mg/kg, p.o) inhibit PG-E2 induced secretions. Similarly in charcoal meal test ALSP and AQSP decreased the movement of charcoal indicating its antimotility activity. It was observed that AQSP is having more potent anti-diarrheal activity than ALSP in these models.

M3 - Article

VL - 1

SP - 396

EP - 405

JO - Pharmacologyonline

JF - Pharmacologyonline

SN - 1827-8620

ER -

Rajesh S, Viswanatha GL, Shylaja H, Manohar D, Handral M, Nandakumar K et al. Antidiarrheal activity of stem bark extracts od Spathodea companulata in rodents. Pharmacologyonline. 2009;1:396-405.