Background: Resistance to antimicrobial agents is emerging in wide variety of nosocomial and community acquired pathogens. Widespread and often inappropriate use of broad spectrum antimicrobial agents is recognized as a significant contributing factor to the development and spread of bacterial resistance. This study was conducted to gain insight into the prevalent antimicrobial prescribing practices, and antimicrobial resistance pattern in nosocomial pathogens at a tertiary care hospital in Pune, India. Methods: Series of one day cross sectional point prevalence surveys were carried out on four days between March and August 2014. All eligible in patients were included in the study. A structured data entry form was used to collect the data for each patient. Relevant samples were collected for microbiological examination from all the clinically identified hospital acquired infection cases. Results: 41.73% of the eligible patients (95% CI: 39.52e43.97) had been prescribed at least one antimicrobial during their stay in the hospital. Beta-lactams (38%) were the most prescribed antimicrobials, followed by Protein synthesis inhibitors (24%). Majority of the organisms isolated from Hospital acquired infection (HAI cases) were found to be resistant to the commonly used antimicrobials viz: Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Amikacin, Gentamicin and Monobactams. Conclusion: There is need to have regular antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance and dissemination of this information to the clinicians. In addition, emphasis on the rational use of antimicrobials, antimicrobial rotation and strict adherence to the standard treatment guidelines is very essential.
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