The genome of living organisms frequently undergoes various types of modifications which are recognized and repaired by the relevant repair mechanisms. These repair pathways are increasingly being deciphered to understand the mechanisms. Base excision repair (BER) is indispensable to maintain genome stability. One of the enigmatic repair proteins of BER, Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 2 (APE2), like APE1, is truly multifunctional and demonstrates the independent and non-redundant function in maintaining the genome integrity. APE2 is involved in ATR-Chk1 mediated DNA damage response. It also resolves topoisomerase1 mediated cleavage complex intermediate which is formed while repairing misincorporated ribonucleotides in the absence of functional RNase H2 mediated excision repair pathway. BER participates in the demethylation pathway and the role of Arabidopsis thaliana APE2 is demonstrated in this process. Moreover, APE2 is synthetically lethal to BRCA1, BRCA2, and RNase H2, and its homolog, APE1 fails to complement the function. Hence, the role of APE2 is not just an alternate to the repair mechanisms but has implications in diverse functional pathways related to the maintenance of genome integrity. This review analyses genomic features of APE2 and delineates its enzyme function as error-prone as well as efficient and accurate repair protein based on the studies on mammalian or its homolog proteins from model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Trypanosoma curzi, Xenopus laevis, Danio rerio, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens.
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