Arterial supply to the soleus muscle: an anatomical study with emphasis on its application in the pedicle flap surgery

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Purpose: To study the various patterns in the extra muscular part of arterial supply to the soleus muscle. Methods: The study was carried out using 38 adult cadaveric lower limbs which were available from the Department of Anatomy of our institution. The vascular branches to the soleus were identified and traced till their point of entry into the soleus. These were considered as extramuscular branches (EMB) to the soleus. The distances of first and last branches from each artery were measured from the apex of head of fibula to their point of entry into the soleus and were expressed as proportion to the length of soleus. Results: The present study observed that the soleus muscle is supplied by EMB of popliteal, posterior tibial and peroneal arteries. In 42.1 % cases, there was no direct EMB from the popliteal artery to the soleus. The EMB of popliteal artery were located between 3.2 and 24.6 % of the length of soleus. The EMB from the posterior tibial and peroneal arteries were located between 6.8–97.1 % and 5.7–94.9 % of the length of soleus, respectively. The proximal 25 % of length of soleus received EMB from all the three arteries. Conclusions: The present study has provided additional information on the various patterns in the extra muscular part of arterial supply to the soleus muscle. This knowledge is important to the plastic and orthopedic surgeons while performing the pedicle flap surgeries. Our opinion is that the proximally based soleal muscle flaps are more beneficial in the surgical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1055-1061
Number of pages7
JournalSurgical and Radiologic Anatomy
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 01-11-2015


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anatomy
  • Surgery
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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