Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, and diclofenac) were determined in three selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in southwestern India and the Gurupura River. The concentrations of the NSAIDs in the influents of the WWTPs ranged 125–184 μg/L for aspirin, 5–22 μg/L for ibuprofen, 11–217 μg/L for naproxen, 3–41 μg/L for ketoprofen and 12–68 μg/L for diclofenac. In the effluents, concentrations ranged 0.4–0.7 μg/L for aspirin, 0.1–2 μg/L for ibuprofen, 3–14 μg/L for naproxen, 0.6–0.8 μg/L for ketoprofen and 2–26 μg/L for diclofenac. The NSAIDs in the WWTPs were found in the order of aspirin > naproxen > diclofenac > ketoprofen > ibuprofen. In the Gurupura river, aspirin (0.02 μg/L), ibuprofen (0.17 μg/L), naproxen (8.8 μg/L), ketoprofen (1.5 μg/L) and diclofenac (1.6 μg/L) were quantified. Hazard quotient (HQ) for various aquatic organisms were calculated for the effluents of WWTPs and Gurupura river water. The results showed medium risk of ibuprofen and naproxen to polyp Hydra attenuata. Continuous discharge of NSAIDs into the river can result in adverse effects to the resident organisms.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis