Assessment of tobacco imagery and compliance with tobacco-free rules in popular Indian films

Muralidhar M. Kulkarni, Veena Ganesh Kamath, Joanne Cranwell, John Britton, Gaurang P. Nazar, Monika Arora, Kirthinath Ballal, Asha Kamath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Exposure to smoking in films causes smoking uptake among adolescents. Investigation of the extent to which tobacco imagery appears, or tobacco control laws are complied with in Indian films is limited, and especially so for films in regional languages. This study presents an analysis of tobacco content and compliance with tobacco control laws in popular films in several languages from the Karnataka state of India. Methods: We used 5 min interval coding to measure actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia and tobacco branding in the top 10 films identified from national box office ratings and regional distributor reports in Karnataka in 2015 and 2016. We also assessed compliance with tobacco-free film rules in India. Findings: A total of 47 films, in English, Hindi, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and Tulu languages were coded. Any tobacco imagery was observed in 72% of films, and actual tobacco use in 50%. Tobacco imagery was equally prevalent in films classified as suitable for universal viewing (U category) or at age 12 or more (U/A category) films; and significantly more common in films made in regional than national language (Hindi). None of the films were fully compliant with legal requirements on health spots, audiovisual disclaimers and health warnings. Conclusions: Tobacco content was common in films classified as suitable for viewing by children, more among regional than national languages. Compliance with tobacco control laws was low. Stricter enforcement of tobacco-free film rules will protect children and adolescents from exposure to tobacco use on screen.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTobacco Control
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 01-01-2019

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Imagery (Psychotherapy)
Motion Pictures
nicotine
Tobacco
Tobacco Use
Language
language
India
Smoking
Law
smoking
Health
adolescent
Tamil
health

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

@article{30ca52f9a4684abf9ca6f38960de117e,
title = "Assessment of tobacco imagery and compliance with tobacco-free rules in popular Indian films",
abstract = "Background: Exposure to smoking in films causes smoking uptake among adolescents. Investigation of the extent to which tobacco imagery appears, or tobacco control laws are complied with in Indian films is limited, and especially so for films in regional languages. This study presents an analysis of tobacco content and compliance with tobacco control laws in popular films in several languages from the Karnataka state of India. Methods: We used 5 min interval coding to measure actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia and tobacco branding in the top 10 films identified from national box office ratings and regional distributor reports in Karnataka in 2015 and 2016. We also assessed compliance with tobacco-free film rules in India. Findings: A total of 47 films, in English, Hindi, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and Tulu languages were coded. Any tobacco imagery was observed in 72{\%} of films, and actual tobacco use in 50{\%}. Tobacco imagery was equally prevalent in films classified as suitable for universal viewing (U category) or at age 12 or more (U/A category) films; and significantly more common in films made in regional than national language (Hindi). None of the films were fully compliant with legal requirements on health spots, audiovisual disclaimers and health warnings. Conclusions: Tobacco content was common in films classified as suitable for viewing by children, more among regional than national languages. Compliance with tobacco control laws was low. Stricter enforcement of tobacco-free film rules will protect children and adolescents from exposure to tobacco use on screen.",
author = "Kulkarni, {Muralidhar M.} and Kamath, {Veena Ganesh} and Joanne Cranwell and John Britton and Nazar, {Gaurang P.} and Monika Arora and Kirthinath Ballal and Asha Kamath",
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Assessment of tobacco imagery and compliance with tobacco-free rules in popular Indian films. / Kulkarni, Muralidhar M.; Kamath, Veena Ganesh; Cranwell, Joanne; Britton, John; Nazar, Gaurang P.; Arora, Monika; Ballal, Kirthinath; Kamath, Asha.

In: Tobacco Control, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Assessment of tobacco imagery and compliance with tobacco-free rules in popular Indian films

AU - Kulkarni, Muralidhar M.

AU - Kamath, Veena Ganesh

AU - Cranwell, Joanne

AU - Britton, John

AU - Nazar, Gaurang P.

AU - Arora, Monika

AU - Ballal, Kirthinath

AU - Kamath, Asha

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background: Exposure to smoking in films causes smoking uptake among adolescents. Investigation of the extent to which tobacco imagery appears, or tobacco control laws are complied with in Indian films is limited, and especially so for films in regional languages. This study presents an analysis of tobacco content and compliance with tobacco control laws in popular films in several languages from the Karnataka state of India. Methods: We used 5 min interval coding to measure actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia and tobacco branding in the top 10 films identified from national box office ratings and regional distributor reports in Karnataka in 2015 and 2016. We also assessed compliance with tobacco-free film rules in India. Findings: A total of 47 films, in English, Hindi, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and Tulu languages were coded. Any tobacco imagery was observed in 72% of films, and actual tobacco use in 50%. Tobacco imagery was equally prevalent in films classified as suitable for universal viewing (U category) or at age 12 or more (U/A category) films; and significantly more common in films made in regional than national language (Hindi). None of the films were fully compliant with legal requirements on health spots, audiovisual disclaimers and health warnings. Conclusions: Tobacco content was common in films classified as suitable for viewing by children, more among regional than national languages. Compliance with tobacco control laws was low. Stricter enforcement of tobacco-free film rules will protect children and adolescents from exposure to tobacco use on screen.

AB - Background: Exposure to smoking in films causes smoking uptake among adolescents. Investigation of the extent to which tobacco imagery appears, or tobacco control laws are complied with in Indian films is limited, and especially so for films in regional languages. This study presents an analysis of tobacco content and compliance with tobacco control laws in popular films in several languages from the Karnataka state of India. Methods: We used 5 min interval coding to measure actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia and tobacco branding in the top 10 films identified from national box office ratings and regional distributor reports in Karnataka in 2015 and 2016. We also assessed compliance with tobacco-free film rules in India. Findings: A total of 47 films, in English, Hindi, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and Tulu languages were coded. Any tobacco imagery was observed in 72% of films, and actual tobacco use in 50%. Tobacco imagery was equally prevalent in films classified as suitable for universal viewing (U category) or at age 12 or more (U/A category) films; and significantly more common in films made in regional than national language (Hindi). None of the films were fully compliant with legal requirements on health spots, audiovisual disclaimers and health warnings. Conclusions: Tobacco content was common in films classified as suitable for viewing by children, more among regional than national languages. Compliance with tobacco control laws was low. Stricter enforcement of tobacco-free film rules will protect children and adolescents from exposure to tobacco use on screen.

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