Background: Risk factors for hearing impairment can offer important information for both the family and health-care providers regarding etiology, other associated health problems, and risk of recurrence in sub-sequent pregnancy. Family history and consanguinity indicates the possible involvement of genetic factors. Objective: The aim of the study is to find the strength of association of family history and consanguinity with permanent hearing impairment in infants. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was designed on 420 infants with permanent hearing impairment and normal hearing from the year 2008 to 2012. The case control ratio was 1:1. Alternate sampling method was used in a hospital for selecting the control group. Parent interview was carried out to collect the information of family history of hearing impairment and consanguineous marriage. Results: Family history and consanguinity was seen in 18.6% and 39.5% of the hearing-impaired group. These factors were associated with hearing impairment with a high significance (odds ratio (OR) 6.5; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 2.8, 15.1; P = 0.000 and OR: 2.7; 95% CI 1.9-3.9; P = 0.000). The combination of risk-factors is seen in 10% of the hearing-impaired group, whereas only 0.5% had it in the control group. Conclusion: Family history and consanguinity seems to be an important risk factor of hearing impairment both in isolation and in combination.
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