Introduction. Vitamin D has a significant role in host immune defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It has been suggested that pulmonary tuberculosis may be associated with lower levels of vitamin D. Present study was therefore undertaken to identify the association between vitamin D deficiency and pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods. A case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital from 2014 to 2016, including 50 adult newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients as cases and 50 age and sex-matched healthy participants as control groups. All participants in the study group had undergone detailed clinical examination and routine laboratory investigations, including vitamin D, calcium, and sputum for AFB. The clinical characteristics, X-ray findings, sputum AFB, and vitamin D levels were analyzed and compared with data obtained from healthy controls. Results. In both groups, the majority were men (88%). BMI was significantly (<0.0001∗) lower in the tuberculosis group (19.40 (17.20, 22.0) vs. 24.00 (22.50, 25.47)). Serum vitamin D levels were significantly lower (P=0.012) in the tuberculosis group (19 (7.75, 27.25) ng/dl) as compared to the control group (25 (19.75, 32.00) ng/dl). Out of 50 TB patients, 27 (54%) had vitamin D deficiency, while among healthy controls, only 13 (26%) had vitamin D deficiency. Among vitamin D deficient PTB patients, 44% had 3+/hpf AFB in sputum smear examination. Conclusion. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pulmonary tuberculosis cases is very high. Hypovitaminosis D was associated with more severe clinical symptoms, higher sputum smear positivity, and extensive lesions in chest radiograph among pulmonary tuberculosis patients.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine