Hypodermic delivery of amikacin is a widely adopted treatment modality for severe infections, including bacterial septicemia, meningitis, intra-abdominal infections, burns, postoperative complications, and urinary tract infections in both paediatric and adult populations. In most instances, the course of treatment requires repeated bolus doses of amikacin, prolonged hospitalization, and the presence of a skilled healthcare worker for administration and continuous therapeutic monitoring to manage the severe adverse effects. Amikacin is hydrophilic and exhibits a short half-life, which further challenges the delivery of sufficient systemic concentrations when administered by the oral or transdermal route. In this purview, the exploitation of novel controlled and sustained release drug delivery platforms is warranted. Furthermore, it has been shown that novel delivery systems are capable of increasing the antibacterial activity of amikacin at lower doses when compared to the conventional formulations and also aid in overcoming the development of drug-resistance, which currently is a significant threat to the healthcare system worldwide. The current review presents a comprehensive overview of the developmental history of amikacin, the mechanism of action in virulent strains as well as the occurrence of resistance, and various emerging drug delivery solutions developed both by the academia and the industry. The examples outlined within the review provides significant pieces of evidence on novel amikacin formulations in the field of antimicrobial research paving the path for future therapeutic interventions that will result in improved clinical outcome.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)