Abstract

While virulence factors and the biofilm-forming capabilities of microbes are the key regulators of the wound healing process, the host immune response may also contribute in the events following wound closure or exacerbation of non-closure. We examined samples from diabetic and non-diabetic foot ulcers/wounds for microbial association and tested the microbes for their antibiotic susceptibility and ability to produce biofilms. A total of 1074 bacterial strains were obtained with staphylococci, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and enterococci as major colonizers in diabetic samples. Though non-diabetic samples had a similar assemblage, the frequency of occurrence of different groups of bacteria was different. Gram-negative bacteria were found to be more prevalent in the diabetic wound environment while Gram-positive bacteria were predominant in non-diabetic ulcers. A higher frequency of monomicrobial infection was observed in samples from non-diabetic individuals when compared to samples from diabetic patients. The prevalence of different groups of bacteria varied when the samples were stratified according to age and sex of the individuals. Several multidrug-resistant strains were observed among the samples tested and most of these strains produced moderate to high levels of biofilms. The weakened immune response in diabetic individuals and synergism among pathogenic micro-organisms may be the critical factors that determine the delicate balance of the wound healing process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1377-1385
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Medical Microbiology
Volume63
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-10-2014

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Diabetic Foot
Biofilms
Microbial Drug Resistance
Wound Healing
Wounds and Injuries
Infection
Citrobacter
Foot Ulcer
Bacteria
Enterococcus
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Virulence Factors
Pseudomonas
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Staphylococcus
Ulcer
Anti-Bacterial Agents

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "Characteristics of microbial drug resistance and its correlates in chronic diabetic foot ulcer infections",
abstract = "While virulence factors and the biofilm-forming capabilities of microbes are the key regulators of the wound healing process, the host immune response may also contribute in the events following wound closure or exacerbation of non-closure. We examined samples from diabetic and non-diabetic foot ulcers/wounds for microbial association and tested the microbes for their antibiotic susceptibility and ability to produce biofilms. A total of 1074 bacterial strains were obtained with staphylococci, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and enterococci as major colonizers in diabetic samples. Though non-diabetic samples had a similar assemblage, the frequency of occurrence of different groups of bacteria was different. Gram-negative bacteria were found to be more prevalent in the diabetic wound environment while Gram-positive bacteria were predominant in non-diabetic ulcers. A higher frequency of monomicrobial infection was observed in samples from non-diabetic individuals when compared to samples from diabetic patients. The prevalence of different groups of bacteria varied when the samples were stratified according to age and sex of the individuals. Several multidrug-resistant strains were observed among the samples tested and most of these strains produced moderate to high levels of biofilms. The weakened immune response in diabetic individuals and synergism among pathogenic micro-organisms may be the critical factors that determine the delicate balance of the wound healing process.",
author = "Murali, {Thokur S.} and Shettigar Kavitha and Jain Spoorthi and Bhat, {Deepika V.} and Prasad, {Alevoor S Bharath} and Zee Upton and Lingadakai Ramachandra and Acharya, {Raviraj V.} and Kapaettu Satyamoorthy",
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T1 - Characteristics of microbial drug resistance and its correlates in chronic diabetic foot ulcer infections

AU - Murali, Thokur S.

AU - Kavitha, Shettigar

AU - Spoorthi, Jain

AU - Bhat, Deepika V.

AU - Prasad, Alevoor S Bharath

AU - Upton, Zee

AU - Ramachandra, Lingadakai

AU - Acharya, Raviraj V.

AU - Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

PY - 2014/10/1

Y1 - 2014/10/1

N2 - While virulence factors and the biofilm-forming capabilities of microbes are the key regulators of the wound healing process, the host immune response may also contribute in the events following wound closure or exacerbation of non-closure. We examined samples from diabetic and non-diabetic foot ulcers/wounds for microbial association and tested the microbes for their antibiotic susceptibility and ability to produce biofilms. A total of 1074 bacterial strains were obtained with staphylococci, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and enterococci as major colonizers in diabetic samples. Though non-diabetic samples had a similar assemblage, the frequency of occurrence of different groups of bacteria was different. Gram-negative bacteria were found to be more prevalent in the diabetic wound environment while Gram-positive bacteria were predominant in non-diabetic ulcers. A higher frequency of monomicrobial infection was observed in samples from non-diabetic individuals when compared to samples from diabetic patients. The prevalence of different groups of bacteria varied when the samples were stratified according to age and sex of the individuals. Several multidrug-resistant strains were observed among the samples tested and most of these strains produced moderate to high levels of biofilms. The weakened immune response in diabetic individuals and synergism among pathogenic micro-organisms may be the critical factors that determine the delicate balance of the wound healing process.

AB - While virulence factors and the biofilm-forming capabilities of microbes are the key regulators of the wound healing process, the host immune response may also contribute in the events following wound closure or exacerbation of non-closure. We examined samples from diabetic and non-diabetic foot ulcers/wounds for microbial association and tested the microbes for their antibiotic susceptibility and ability to produce biofilms. A total of 1074 bacterial strains were obtained with staphylococci, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and enterococci as major colonizers in diabetic samples. Though non-diabetic samples had a similar assemblage, the frequency of occurrence of different groups of bacteria was different. Gram-negative bacteria were found to be more prevalent in the diabetic wound environment while Gram-positive bacteria were predominant in non-diabetic ulcers. A higher frequency of monomicrobial infection was observed in samples from non-diabetic individuals when compared to samples from diabetic patients. The prevalence of different groups of bacteria varied when the samples were stratified according to age and sex of the individuals. Several multidrug-resistant strains were observed among the samples tested and most of these strains produced moderate to high levels of biofilms. The weakened immune response in diabetic individuals and synergism among pathogenic micro-organisms may be the critical factors that determine the delicate balance of the wound healing process.

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