MiRNAs are class of noncoding RNA important for gene expression regulation in many plants, animals and viruses. MiRNA clusters contain a set of two or more miRNA encoding genes, transcribed together as polycistronic miRNAs. Currently, there are approximately 159 miRNA clusters reported in the human genome consisting of miRNAs ranging from two or more miRNA genes. A large proportion of clustered miRNAs resides in and around the fragile sites or cancer associated genomic hotspots and plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Altered expression of miRNA cluster can be pro-tumorigenic or anti-tumorigenic and can be targeted for clinical management of cancer. Over the past few years, manipulation of miRNA clusters expression is attempted for experimental purpose as well as for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic applications in cancer. Re-expression of miRNAs by epigenetic therapy, genome editing such as clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and miRNA mowers showed promising results in cancer therapy. In this review, we focused on the potential of miRNA clusters as a biomarker for diagnosis, prognosis, targeted therapy as well as strategies for modulating their expression in a therapeutic context. This article is categorized under: Regulatory RNAs/RNAi/Riboswitches > Regulatory RNAs RNA Processing > Processing of Small RNAs RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease Regulatory RNAs/RNAi/Riboswitches > Biogenesis of Effector Small RNAs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology