Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) worldwide is a major public health concern. Cancer patients are considered a vulnerable population to SARS-CoV-2 infection and may develop several COVID-19 symptoms. The heightened immunocompromised state, prolonged chronic pro-inflammatory milieu coupled with comorbid conditions are shared in both disease conditions and may influence patient outcome. Although ovarian cancer (OC) and COVID-19 are diseases of entirely different primary organs, both diseases share similar molecular and cellular characteristics in their microenvironment suggesting a potential cooperativity leading to poor outcome. In COVID-19 related cases, hospitalizations and deaths worldwide are lower in women than in males; however, comorbidities associated with OC may increase the COVID-19 risk in women. The women at the age of 50-60 years are at greater risk of developing OC as well as SARS-CoV-2 infection. Increased levels of gonadotropin and androgen, dysregulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), hyper-coagulation and chronic inflammation are common conditions observed among OC and severe cases of COVID-19. The upregulation of common inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), among others in the sera of COVID-19 and OC subjects suggests potentially similar mechanism(s) involved in the hyper-inflammatory condition observed in both disease states. Thus, it is conceivable that the pathogenesis of OC may significantly contribute to the potential infection by SARS-CoV-2. Our understanding of the influence and mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection on OC is at an early stage and in this article, we review the underlying pathogenesis presented by various comorbidities of OC and correlate their influence on SARS-CoV-2 infection.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology