Comparison of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban South Indian population

Raju Prema, George Ronnie, Ramesh Sathyamangalam Ve, Arvind Hemamalini, Mani Baskaran, Govindaswamy Kumaramanickavel, McCarty Catherine, Lingam Vijaya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Purpose: To compare the prevalence of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Four thousand eight hundred subjects (age >39 years) each from rural and urban Tamil Nadu were enumerated for a population-based study. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmic evaluation including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), objective and subjective refraction. Out of 3924 rural responders 63.91% and out of 3850 urban responders 81.64% were phakic in the right eye with BCVA of 20/40 or better and were included in the study. Association of spectacle use and refractive errors with different parameters were analysed using logistic regression. Statistical Analysis: Chi square, t test, Chi square for trend and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for analysis. Results: Spectacle use was significantly higher and positively associated with literacy and employment in the urban population. The age and gender-adjusted prevalence of emmetropia, myopia of spherical equivalent (SE) ≤-0.50 diopter sphere (DS), high myopia (SE S-5.00DS), hyperopia (SE ≤0.50DS) and astigmatism ≤ 0.50 diopter cylinder (DC) were 46.8%, 31.0%, 4.3%, 17.9% and 60.4% respectively in the rural population and 29.0%, 17.6%, 1.5%, 51.9%, 59.1% respectively in the urban population. The prevalence of emmetropia decreased with age (p < 0.001); prevalence of myopia and high myopia increased with age (p = 0.001) and were associated with nuclear sclerosis (p = 0.001) in both populations. Hyperopia was commoner among women than men (η = 0.001); was positively associated with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.008) in the rural population and negatively with nuclear sclerosis (p = 0.001) in both populations. Conclusion: Spectacle use was found to be significantly lower in the rural population. The pattern of refractive errors was significantly different between both populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)139-144
Number of pages6
JournalIndian Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume56
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 01-06-2008

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Refractive Errors
Myopia
Rural Population
Emmetropia
Hyperopia
Urban Population
Population
Sclerosis
Visual Acuity
Astigmatism
Chi-Square Distribution
Diabetes Mellitus
Logistic Models

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Prema, R., Ronnie, G., Ve, R. S., Hemamalini, A., Baskaran, M., Kumaramanickavel, G., ... Vijaya, L. (2008). Comparison of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban South Indian population. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, 56(2), 139-144.
Prema, Raju ; Ronnie, George ; Ve, Ramesh Sathyamangalam ; Hemamalini, Arvind ; Baskaran, Mani ; Kumaramanickavel, Govindaswamy ; Catherine, McCarty ; Vijaya, Lingam. / Comparison of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban South Indian population. In: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008 ; Vol. 56, No. 2. pp. 139-144.
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abstract = "Purpose: To compare the prevalence of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Four thousand eight hundred subjects (age >39 years) each from rural and urban Tamil Nadu were enumerated for a population-based study. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmic evaluation including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), objective and subjective refraction. Out of 3924 rural responders 63.91{\%} and out of 3850 urban responders 81.64{\%} were phakic in the right eye with BCVA of 20/40 or better and were included in the study. Association of spectacle use and refractive errors with different parameters were analysed using logistic regression. Statistical Analysis: Chi square, t test, Chi square for trend and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for analysis. Results: Spectacle use was significantly higher and positively associated with literacy and employment in the urban population. The age and gender-adjusted prevalence of emmetropia, myopia of spherical equivalent (SE) ≤-0.50 diopter sphere (DS), high myopia (SE S-5.00DS), hyperopia (SE ≤0.50DS) and astigmatism ≤ 0.50 diopter cylinder (DC) were 46.8{\%}, 31.0{\%}, 4.3{\%}, 17.9{\%} and 60.4{\%} respectively in the rural population and 29.0{\%}, 17.6{\%}, 1.5{\%}, 51.9{\%}, 59.1{\%} respectively in the urban population. The prevalence of emmetropia decreased with age (p < 0.001); prevalence of myopia and high myopia increased with age (p = 0.001) and were associated with nuclear sclerosis (p = 0.001) in both populations. Hyperopia was commoner among women than men (η = 0.001); was positively associated with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.008) in the rural population and negatively with nuclear sclerosis (p = 0.001) in both populations. Conclusion: Spectacle use was found to be significantly lower in the rural population. The pattern of refractive errors was significantly different between both populations.",
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Prema, R, Ronnie, G, Ve, RS, Hemamalini, A, Baskaran, M, Kumaramanickavel, G, Catherine, M & Vijaya, L 2008, 'Comparison of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban South Indian population', Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 139-144.

Comparison of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban South Indian population. / Prema, Raju; Ronnie, George; Ve, Ramesh Sathyamangalam; Hemamalini, Arvind; Baskaran, Mani; Kumaramanickavel, Govindaswamy; Catherine, McCarty; Vijaya, Lingam.

In: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 56, No. 2, 01.06.2008, p. 139-144.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Comparison of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban South Indian population

AU - Prema, Raju

AU - Ronnie, George

AU - Ve, Ramesh Sathyamangalam

AU - Hemamalini, Arvind

AU - Baskaran, Mani

AU - Kumaramanickavel, Govindaswamy

AU - Catherine, McCarty

AU - Vijaya, Lingam

PY - 2008/6/1

Y1 - 2008/6/1

N2 - Purpose: To compare the prevalence of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Four thousand eight hundred subjects (age >39 years) each from rural and urban Tamil Nadu were enumerated for a population-based study. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmic evaluation including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), objective and subjective refraction. Out of 3924 rural responders 63.91% and out of 3850 urban responders 81.64% were phakic in the right eye with BCVA of 20/40 or better and were included in the study. Association of spectacle use and refractive errors with different parameters were analysed using logistic regression. Statistical Analysis: Chi square, t test, Chi square for trend and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for analysis. Results: Spectacle use was significantly higher and positively associated with literacy and employment in the urban population. The age and gender-adjusted prevalence of emmetropia, myopia of spherical equivalent (SE) ≤-0.50 diopter sphere (DS), high myopia (SE S-5.00DS), hyperopia (SE ≤0.50DS) and astigmatism ≤ 0.50 diopter cylinder (DC) were 46.8%, 31.0%, 4.3%, 17.9% and 60.4% respectively in the rural population and 29.0%, 17.6%, 1.5%, 51.9%, 59.1% respectively in the urban population. The prevalence of emmetropia decreased with age (p < 0.001); prevalence of myopia and high myopia increased with age (p = 0.001) and were associated with nuclear sclerosis (p = 0.001) in both populations. Hyperopia was commoner among women than men (η = 0.001); was positively associated with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.008) in the rural population and negatively with nuclear sclerosis (p = 0.001) in both populations. Conclusion: Spectacle use was found to be significantly lower in the rural population. The pattern of refractive errors was significantly different between both populations.

AB - Purpose: To compare the prevalence of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Four thousand eight hundred subjects (age >39 years) each from rural and urban Tamil Nadu were enumerated for a population-based study. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmic evaluation including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), objective and subjective refraction. Out of 3924 rural responders 63.91% and out of 3850 urban responders 81.64% were phakic in the right eye with BCVA of 20/40 or better and were included in the study. Association of spectacle use and refractive errors with different parameters were analysed using logistic regression. Statistical Analysis: Chi square, t test, Chi square for trend and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for analysis. Results: Spectacle use was significantly higher and positively associated with literacy and employment in the urban population. The age and gender-adjusted prevalence of emmetropia, myopia of spherical equivalent (SE) ≤-0.50 diopter sphere (DS), high myopia (SE S-5.00DS), hyperopia (SE ≤0.50DS) and astigmatism ≤ 0.50 diopter cylinder (DC) were 46.8%, 31.0%, 4.3%, 17.9% and 60.4% respectively in the rural population and 29.0%, 17.6%, 1.5%, 51.9%, 59.1% respectively in the urban population. The prevalence of emmetropia decreased with age (p < 0.001); prevalence of myopia and high myopia increased with age (p = 0.001) and were associated with nuclear sclerosis (p = 0.001) in both populations. Hyperopia was commoner among women than men (η = 0.001); was positively associated with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.008) in the rural population and negatively with nuclear sclerosis (p = 0.001) in both populations. Conclusion: Spectacle use was found to be significantly lower in the rural population. The pattern of refractive errors was significantly different between both populations.

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