Objectives: The aim of the study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical care versus usual care on the treatment costs in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) in the outpatient HD centers of academic, government, and corporate hospitals. Methods: An open-labeled randomized controlled study was registered under clinical trial registry of India (Ref. no. CTRI/2014/004900). The study was conducted for a period of 12-month follow-up in patients undergoing maintenance HD. The patients were randomized into Usual Care (UC) group and Pharmaceutical Care (PC) group by the block design method. The UC group received the usual care provided by the hospital staff like physicians, nurses, and technicians whereas, the PC group received the usual care along with the pharmaceutical care delivered by a qualified registered pharmacist. The patient perspective ‘out-of-pocket expenditures’ was considered for calculating the annual cost incurred for the treatment of HD patients. Results: Out of 153 patients, academic hospital (n = 83), government hospital (n = 18), and corporate hospital (n = 52). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for academic, government, and corporate hospitals HD patients of PC group compared with UC group were 86,230 Indian Rupee (INR)/Quality-adjusted life year (QALY), 231,016.66 INR/QALY, and 87,430 INR/QALY, respectively. Our study results revealed that PC group was costlier and more effective compared to the UC group. Conclusions: It depends upon the policymakers and regulators to take the decision, if they believe that the extra cost is worth the extra QALY.
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