Decompressive Craniectomy in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Comparison with Standard Craniotomy Using Propensity-Matched Analysis

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Abstract

Background: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage carries a poor prognosis with a 30-day mortality rate of 35%–52%. There is no standardized surgical technique for treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. While minimally invasive techniques are popular, there has been renewed interest in decompressive craniectomy (DC). We compared surgical and functional outcomes of standard craniotomy and DC, both with hematoma evacuation, in the surgical treatment of supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods: This 4-year retrospective study compared outcomes of 2 surgical techniques: standard craniotomy in group A (n = 78) and DC in group B (n = 54). To minimize bias in case selection, propensity matching was performed to match preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score and hematoma volume (group C). Results: Hematoma evacuation was performed in 132 patients. Mean age of patients was 53.3 years, 50.5 years, and 52.06 years in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Median preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score was 9, 7, and 8 (P = 0.01; P = 0.45), and mean hematoma volume was 46.21 mL, 50.91 mL, and 49.90 mL. Overall mortality was 26.5%; 62.9% (n = 22) of deaths were in group A, and 37.1% (n = 13) were in group B (P = 0.69). Median modified Rankin Scale score was similar in both groups, both at discharge and at 3 months. After determining propensity scores, mortality and outcomes of matched groups remained similar. Conclusions: DC with hematoma evacuation does not appear to provide a significant advantage over standard craniotomy with regard to functional outcomes and mortality. DC may overcome the need for subsequent surgery in accommodating postoperative mass effect in residual bleeds and rebleeds but is associated with greater blood loss and longer operative duration.

Original languageEnglish
JournalWorld Neurosurgery
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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