Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a multisystem disease wherein there is an exaggerated immune system activation following a trigger such as infection, malignancy, or autoimmune diseases. Here we report a case of a 3-year-old boy who presented to us with fever, was diagnosed with dengue fever, and treatment started for the same. Clinical response was poor to treatment and high-grade fever persisted. Subsequent evaluation showed Plasmodium falciparum malaria and treatment was initiated with antimalarial drugs. Further clinical deterioration with poor trend of laboratory values over the next few days prompted evaluation for HLH; workup was positive satisfying the HLH-2004 criteria and IV dexamethasone was started. The child gradually improved and was discharged with normal counts on follow-up over the next 3 months. This article emphasizes on the importance of high degree of suspicion, early workup, and initiation of treatment for HLH for a better outcome.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health