Background: The replacement of the thiazolidinedione moiety with a thiazolidinone may yield antidiabetic compounds with similar pleiotropic effects. Hence, the aim of the present study was to explore the dose-related antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of two synthesized novel thiazolidin-4-one derivatives, one with a nicotinamide and the other with a p-chlorophenoxyacetamide substitution at the N3 position of the thiazolidinone ring (NAT1 and PAT1, respectively), in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: Metabolic syndrome was induced in Wistar rats by neonatal administration of monosodium glutamate (i.p.) on 4 consecutive days followed by high-sucrose diet feeding for 6 months. The effects of NAT1 (33 and 66 mg/kg) and molar equivalent doses of PAT1 (40 and 80 mg/kg) on relevant biochemical parameters were evaluated. Because MetS is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, we also evaluated the effects of these compounds on proinflammatory markers, namely interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO). Results: Both NAT1 and PAT1 attenuated hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, and glucose intolerance. PAT1 exhibited superior antihyperglycemic and antihypoalphalipoproteinemic effects than NAT1. However, NAT1 had a better triglyceride-lowering effect. At the lower dose tested, both compounds significantly reduced elevated malondialdehyde levels. In addition, PAT1 (80 mg/kg) restored hepatic superoxide dismutase enzyme levels. There was a tendency for NAT1 and PAT1 to inhibit elevated hepatic IL-6 and TNF-α levels, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. In addition, PAT1 exhibited in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by reducing proinflammatory ROS and NO levels in RAW264.7 macrophages. Conclusions: The novel thiazolidin-4-ones NAT1 and PAT1 could be potential pleiotropic drug candidates targeting MetS.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism