Drilling Response of Carbon Fabric/Solid Lubricant Filler/Epoxy Hybrid Composites: An Experimental Investigation

Yermal Shriraj Rao, Nanjangud Subbarao Mohan, Nagaraja Shetty, Subash Acharya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Carbon-fiber-reinforced epoxy composite (CEC) has gained widespread acceptance as a structural material in various applications. Drilled holes are essential for assembling composite material components. Reducing drilling-induced damage and temperature effects is crucial for improved surface quality and integrity of the drilled composite. In the present work, drilling experiments were conducted on CEC, hexagonal-boron nitride (h-BN) dispersed CEC, and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) dispersed CEC at three different levels of spindle speed, feed, and drill diameter using solid carbide twist drills. The filler concentrations used in this study were 4, 6, and 8 wt%. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of input factors (feed, spindle speed, drill diameter, and filler concentration) on the drilling responses such as thrust force, temperature, arithmetic mean surface roughness (Ra), and push-out delamination factor (DFexit). The average drilling temperature, Ra, and DFexit of MoS2 dispersed CEC were reduced by 24.7, 46.5, and 11.3%, respectively, when compared to neat CEC. In h-BN dispersed CEC, the average drilling temperature, Ra, and DFexit were reduced by 25.2, 40.9, and 13.2%, respectively, compared to neat CEC. The lubricating properties and high thermal conductivity of filler added to epoxy are responsible for the lower temperature and improved hole surface finish. The improved delamination resistance in filler-loaded CEC is due to the strengthening of the matrix and fiber–matrix interface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the morphology of the drilled composite surface. The spindle speed of 5500 rpm, feed of 0.03 mm.rev−1, and filler loading of 4 wt% produced the minimum Ra and DFexit. The response surface method (RSM) was applied to determine the input parameters based on multi-response optimum criteria.

Original languageEnglish
Article number46
JournalJournal of Composites Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 02-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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