Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis and an emerging public health problem. Leptospirosis symptoms are often confused or misdiagnosed with other febrile illness like malaria, viral hepatitis, influenza, dengue, typhoid, melioidosis, and scrub typhus as the clinical manifestations are almost similar. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis of leptospirosis is indeed critical for proper and prompt treatment. Herein, we report the development of single-walled carbon nanotubes based immunofluorescence probe (Carbo-Lip) for the detection of leptospirosis at an early phase by utilising major outer membrane protein, LipL32 of Leptospira. The Carbo-Lip probe was fabricated through immuno recognition method with fluorescent dye functionalized LipL32 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), secondary antibody and Leptospira. Surface characterization studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with the attenuated total reflectance, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Zeta potential, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques were used to demonstrate the successful fabrication of Carbo-Lip probe. The sensor probe was capable of detecting the presence of leptospires at a lower concentration of 103/ml, and could detect 102 leptospires in 100 μL of sample within 3 h of the test conditions, and was stable up to 2 weeks. This Carbo-Lip probe was further tested and validated for its capacity to detect Leptospira in clinical samples, which exhibited high selectivity and specificity towards Leptospira even in the presence of malaria and dengue. Our results were consistent with microscopic agglutination test, which is known as gold standard, immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), IgM spot test, and culture tests for the diagnosis of Leptospira infection.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology