Background: Surface roughness associated with improper finishing/polishing of restorations can result in plaque accumulation, gingival irritation, surface staining, and poor esthetic of restored teeth. The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of various finishing and polishing systems and time using various procedures on surface roughness of some esthetic restorative materials. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, samples of two composite materials, compomer and glass ionomer cement (GIC) materials, were fabricated. Finishing and polishing were done immediately (n = 40) and after 1 week (n = 40) using four systems (diamond bur + soflex discs; diamond bur + Astropol polishing brush; tungsten carbide bur + soflex discs; tungsten carbide bur + Astropol polishing brush). Surface roughness was measured using surface profilometer. Data were statistically analyzed by t-test (for each material and time period) and one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post hoc (for finishing and polishing systems) at a significant level of P < 0.05. Results: Analysis of time period, irrespective of finishing and polishing system showed that Ra values were greater (P < 0.05) in delayed polishing in GIC > Z100 > Filtek P90 > Dyract AP, suggesting immediate polishing is better. Among the materials, Filtek P90 had the least Ra values indicating the smoothest surface among all materials, followed by Z100, Dyract AP, and GIC. Comparison of polishing and finishing systems irrespective of materials showed that Ra values were lower (P > 0.05) in diamond + Astropol combination whereas diamond + soflex had the greatest Ra values. Conclusion: It might be concluded that: (i) Filtek P90 showed least Ra values followed by < Z100 < Dyract < GIC; (ii) immediate (24 h) finishing/polishing of materials is better than delayed; and (iii) among all these polishing systems, diamond bur-Astropol and Astrobrush showed good surface finish.
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