Introduction: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent that is most widely used for smear layer removal. Irritrol™ is a novel endodontic irrigating solution that contains EDTA and chlorhexidine that can be used as a final irrigating agent which claims of being more efficient but less aggressive. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of Irritrol and EDTA in smear layer removal from instrumented human root canal dentine. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine extracted human single-rooted maxillary incisors were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. Chemomechanical preparation was done using ProTaper Gold rotary instruments and intermittent irrigation of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Random division of the samples into three groups (n = 13) was done with Group A: Irritrol; Group B: 17% EDTA; and Group C: 0.9% saline solution. The samples were dehydrated, gold sputtered, and evaluated under scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA with post hoc Conover test with a significance level of P = 0.05%. Results: It was demonstrated that 17% EDTA was significantly more effective in removal of smear layer than Irritrol in coronal, middle, and apical third of the root canal. Conclusions: 17% EDTA had better smear layer removal effect than Irritrol when used as a final irrigant.
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