Introduction: Chemically released growth factors play a vital role in regenerative endodontics. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is 1 of the most extensively studied bioactive molecules that promotes cell proliferation, differentiation, and chemotaxis. The goal of the current research was to analyze the effect of 7% maleic acid (MA) root conditioning of an infected root canal on the release of TGF-β1. Methods: Single-rooted human teeth were decoronated, and the canals were enlarged with a Peeso reamer. The samples were divided into biofilm and nonbiofilm groups. Subsequently, all the samples of both groups were flushed with 10 mL of each irrigant, namely, 1.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 7% MA, 17% EDTA, and a combination of 1.5% NaOCl with 17% EDTA or 7% MA, for 10 minutes each. TGF-β1 was estimated quantitatively using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: TGF-β1 release was lowest among the biofilm samples compared with nonbiofilm among all the groups. MA 7% with 1.5% NaOCl rendered higher amounts of growth factor release in contrast to the combination of 17% EDTA and 1.5% NaOCl in both the biofilm and nonbiofilm groups (P < .048). The nonbiofilm samples treated with 7% MA alone illustrated higher growth factor release compared with 17% EDTA only (P < .006), but there was no significant difference in growth factor release among the biofilm samples treated with 7% MA and 17% EDTA. Conclusions: Bacterial biofilms modified the release of TGF-β1. MA 7% was observed to be significantly more efficacious than 17% EDTA in TGF-β1 growth factor release from radicular dentin.
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