Effect of Sn doping on structural, optical, electrical and wettability properties of oriented ZnO nanorod arrays

A. Santhosh Kumar, K. K. Nagaraja, H. S. Nagaraja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Herein we present a modified sol gel route for the one step fabrication of oriented ZnO nanorod arrays. The method is seed layer free, and nanorods directly attach to a substrate. We also present the effect of tin (Sn) content on the crystallinity, microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the ZnO nanorod arrays. Thermo gravimetric (TG) curves of gel precursors showed that most of the organic groups and other volatiles were removed at about 450 C. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that the films were polycrystalline in nature with (002) preferred orientation. The texture coefficient, grain size, dislocation density and lattice parameters of the ZnO arrays were determined. The SEM micrographs revealed that the undoped and 1 at.%Sn doped films were composed of nanorods and the concentration of 2 at.%Sn doping hindered the rod like structure growth and modulated into granular nature. UV-visible transmission spectroscopy indicated that the transparency of the films increased with Sn content. On Sn doping, the films also exhibited a red shift and slight shrinkage of band gap. The electrical studies revealed that 1 at.% of Sn doping enhanced electrical conduction in ZnO films and beyond that the distortion caused in the lattice reduced the conductivity. The contact angle of the ZnO nanostructures varied between 91 and 115 depending upon the Sn content. Therefore, 1 at.%Sn doping into ZnO nanorods improves the crystallinity, electrical conductivity and water contact angle.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3812-3822
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 01-10-2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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