Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on learning and memory in normal and memory deficit rats

A. Agarwal, S. Malini, K.L. Bairy, M.S. Rao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective: To study the effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) on learning and memory in normal and cyclosporine induced memory deficit rats. Methods: Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the whole plant of Tinospora cordifolia was administered orally for 15 days in two groups of rats. Cyclosporine 15, 25 mg/kg, i.p. was administered on alternate days for 10 days. Combination of cyclosporine 25 mg/kg, i.p. for 10 days and Tc alcoholic 200 mg/kg and Tc aqueous 100 mg/kg were administered in two different groups of rats. At the end of treatment, learning and memory was assessed using Hebb William maze and passive avoidance task. The locomotor activity was assessed using open field chamber. The immune status was studied using DNCB skin sensitivity test. Histopathological examination of hippocampus was done. Results: Both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Tc produced a decrease in learning scores in Hebb William maze and retention memory indicating enhancement of learning and memory. However, cyclosporine at both the doses increased the learning scores in Hebb William maze and decrease in retention time in the passive avoidance task suggesting a memory deficit. The combination of cyclosporine and Tc produced a decrease in learning scores in Hebb William maze and increase latency in passive avoidance task compared to cyclosporine alone treated rats. The histopathological examination of hippocampus in cyclosporine treated rats showed neurodegenerative changes which were protected by the Tc. Conclusion: Tc enhances cognition (learning and memory) in normal rats. Cyclosporine induced memory deficit was successfully overcome by Tc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-349
Number of pages11
JournalIndian Journal of Pharmacology
Volume34
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2002

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Tinospora
Memory Disorders
Cyclosporine
Learning
Hippocampus
Dinitrochlorobenzene
Plant Extracts
Locomotion
Skin Tests
Cognition

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Agarwal, A., Malini, S., Bairy, K. L., & Rao, M. S. (2002). Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on learning and memory in normal and memory deficit rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 34(5), 339-349.
Agarwal, A. ; Malini, S. ; Bairy, K.L. ; Rao, M.S. / Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on learning and memory in normal and memory deficit rats. In: Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2002 ; Vol. 34, No. 5. pp. 339-349.
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abstract = "Objective: To study the effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) on learning and memory in normal and cyclosporine induced memory deficit rats. Methods: Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the whole plant of Tinospora cordifolia was administered orally for 15 days in two groups of rats. Cyclosporine 15, 25 mg/kg, i.p. was administered on alternate days for 10 days. Combination of cyclosporine 25 mg/kg, i.p. for 10 days and Tc alcoholic 200 mg/kg and Tc aqueous 100 mg/kg were administered in two different groups of rats. At the end of treatment, learning and memory was assessed using Hebb William maze and passive avoidance task. The locomotor activity was assessed using open field chamber. The immune status was studied using DNCB skin sensitivity test. Histopathological examination of hippocampus was done. Results: Both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Tc produced a decrease in learning scores in Hebb William maze and retention memory indicating enhancement of learning and memory. However, cyclosporine at both the doses increased the learning scores in Hebb William maze and decrease in retention time in the passive avoidance task suggesting a memory deficit. The combination of cyclosporine and Tc produced a decrease in learning scores in Hebb William maze and increase latency in passive avoidance task compared to cyclosporine alone treated rats. The histopathological examination of hippocampus in cyclosporine treated rats showed neurodegenerative changes which were protected by the Tc. Conclusion: Tc enhances cognition (learning and memory) in normal rats. Cyclosporine induced memory deficit was successfully overcome by Tc.",
author = "A. Agarwal and S. Malini and K.L. Bairy and M.S. Rao",
note = "Cited By :41 Export Date: 10 November 2017 CODEN: INJPD Correspondence Address: Bairy, K.L.; Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576 119, India; email: klbairy@yahoo.com Chemicals/CAS: 1 chloro 2,4 dinitrobenzene, 25567-67-3, 97-00-7; alcohol, 64-17-5; cyclosporin, 79217-60-0; gum arabic, 9000-01-5; olive oil, 8001-25-0; water, 7732-18-5 References: Victor, A., Dementia and Amnestic syndrome: With comments on neurology of intelligence and memory. I (2001) Principles of Neurology, pp. 444-463. , in: Victor M, Ropper AD, eds.; New York: McGraw Hill; Kupfermann, I., Learning and memory (1993) Principles of Neural Science, pp. 997-1008. , In: Kendall, Schwartz, Jessel, eds.; London: Prentice Hall International; Bennett, P.C., Zhao, W., Lawen, A., Cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of calcineurin, impair memory formation in 10 day old chicks (1996) Brain Res, 730, pp. 107-117; Sei, Y., Arora, P.K., Skolnick, P., Paul, I.A., Spatial learning impairment in a murine model of AIDS (1992) FASEB J, 6, pp. 3008-3013; Craven, J.L., Cyclosporine associated organic mental disorder in liver transplant recepients (1991) Psychosomatic, 32, pp. 94-102; Kustova, E.V., Donilova, R.A., Ashmarin, I.P., The action on brain in white rats of the immunostimulant Freund's complete adjuvant (1992) Biol Nauki, 3, pp. 97-103; Malini, S., Effect of immunomodulator on learning and memory in rats (1999), [dissection]. Manipal (Karnataka): Manipal Academy of Higher Education; Thatte, U.M., Dhanukar, S.A., Rao, S.G.A., Tinospora induces colony stimulating activity in serum (1989) J Postgrad Med, 40, pp. 202-203; Thatte, U.M., Chhabria, S.N., Karandikar, S.M., Dhanukar, S.A., Protective effect of Indian medicinal plants against cyclophosphmide neutropenia (1987) J Postgrad Med, 33, pp. 185-188; Usha, D., Thatte, U.M., Joshi, D.S., Dhanukar, S.A., Flow cytometric evaluation of bone marrow proliferation induced by Tinospora cordifolia (1994) Update Ayurveda, 94, pp. 38-42; Khosa, R.L., Sarma, D.N.K., Ghanasauria, J.P.N., Ray, A.K., Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on brain neurotransmitter in stressed rats (1995) Fitoterapia, 14 i, pp. 421-422; Satyavati, G.V., Pharmacological review: Medhya rasayana (1996) Herbal Drug Industry, 1st Edn, p. 238. , In: Chaudhri RD, ed.; New Delhi: Estern Publishers;; Buresova, A., Bure, J., Learning and memory (1983) Techniques and Basic Experiments for the Study of Brain and Behaviour, pp. 148-152. , In: Bures J, Buresova O, Houston JP, eds.; Newyork: Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam;; Catalonia, J.W., Taylor, T.P., Rabson, S.A., Chritien, B., A method for dinitrochlorobenzene contact sensitization. A clinicopathological study (1972) New Engl J Med, 286, pp. 399-402; Farr, S.A., Flood, J.F., Morley, J.E., The effect of cholinergic, gabaergic, serotonergic, glutamergic receptor modulation on post trial memory process in hippocampus (2000) Neurol Learning Memory, 73, pp. 150-167; Borlongan, C.V., Fujisaki, T., Watanabe, S., Cyclosporine A injection in rats with damaged BBB does not impair retention of passive avoidance (1990) Neurosci Res, 32, pp. 195-200; Hagan, J.J., Morris, R.G.M., The cholinergic hypothesis of memory (1988) Handbook of Psychopharmacology, pp. 237-323. , In: Iverson LL, Iverson S, snyder SH eds.; Newyork: Plenum; Bisset, N.G., Nwai, W.U., Antiarthritic, bitter tonic and antibacterial activity of Tinospora cordifolia (1983) Plant Med, 48, pp. 275-279; Toes, R.C., Mohammad, E., The effect of neonatal choline dietary supplementation on adult spatial and configural learning and memory in rats (1999) Dev Psychobiol, 35, pp. 226-240; Cunha, D.A., Neuroanatomical and neurochemical correlates of HIV/SIV mediated cognitive and motor impairment (1994) Inflammopharmacol, 3, pp. 65-96; Starr, J.M., Whalley, L.J., Drug induced dementia. Incidence, management and prevention (1994) Drug Saf, 11, pp. 310-317",
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Agarwal, A, Malini, S, Bairy, KL & Rao, MS 2002, 'Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on learning and memory in normal and memory deficit rats', Indian Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 339-349.

Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on learning and memory in normal and memory deficit rats. / Agarwal, A.; Malini, S.; Bairy, K.L.; Rao, M.S.

In: Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 34, No. 5, 2002, p. 339-349.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on learning and memory in normal and memory deficit rats

AU - Agarwal, A.

AU - Malini, S.

AU - Bairy, K.L.

AU - Rao, M.S.

N1 - Cited By :41 Export Date: 10 November 2017 CODEN: INJPD Correspondence Address: Bairy, K.L.; Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576 119, India; email: klbairy@yahoo.com Chemicals/CAS: 1 chloro 2,4 dinitrobenzene, 25567-67-3, 97-00-7; alcohol, 64-17-5; cyclosporin, 79217-60-0; gum arabic, 9000-01-5; olive oil, 8001-25-0; water, 7732-18-5 References: Victor, A., Dementia and Amnestic syndrome: With comments on neurology of intelligence and memory. I (2001) Principles of Neurology, pp. 444-463. , in: Victor M, Ropper AD, eds.; New York: McGraw Hill; Kupfermann, I., Learning and memory (1993) Principles of Neural Science, pp. 997-1008. , In: Kendall, Schwartz, Jessel, eds.; London: Prentice Hall International; Bennett, P.C., Zhao, W., Lawen, A., Cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of calcineurin, impair memory formation in 10 day old chicks (1996) Brain Res, 730, pp. 107-117; Sei, Y., Arora, P.K., Skolnick, P., Paul, I.A., Spatial learning impairment in a murine model of AIDS (1992) FASEB J, 6, pp. 3008-3013; Craven, J.L., Cyclosporine associated organic mental disorder in liver transplant recepients (1991) Psychosomatic, 32, pp. 94-102; Kustova, E.V., Donilova, R.A., Ashmarin, I.P., The action on brain in white rats of the immunostimulant Freund's complete adjuvant (1992) Biol Nauki, 3, pp. 97-103; Malini, S., Effect of immunomodulator on learning and memory in rats (1999), [dissection]. Manipal (Karnataka): Manipal Academy of Higher Education; Thatte, U.M., Dhanukar, S.A., Rao, S.G.A., Tinospora induces colony stimulating activity in serum (1989) J Postgrad Med, 40, pp. 202-203; Thatte, U.M., Chhabria, S.N., Karandikar, S.M., Dhanukar, S.A., Protective effect of Indian medicinal plants against cyclophosphmide neutropenia (1987) J Postgrad Med, 33, pp. 185-188; Usha, D., Thatte, U.M., Joshi, D.S., Dhanukar, S.A., Flow cytometric evaluation of bone marrow proliferation induced by Tinospora cordifolia (1994) Update Ayurveda, 94, pp. 38-42; Khosa, R.L., Sarma, D.N.K., Ghanasauria, J.P.N., Ray, A.K., Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on brain neurotransmitter in stressed rats (1995) Fitoterapia, 14 i, pp. 421-422; Satyavati, G.V., Pharmacological review: Medhya rasayana (1996) Herbal Drug Industry, 1st Edn, p. 238. , In: Chaudhri RD, ed.; New Delhi: Estern Publishers;; Buresova, A., Bure, J., Learning and memory (1983) Techniques and Basic Experiments for the Study of Brain and Behaviour, pp. 148-152. , In: Bures J, Buresova O, Houston JP, eds.; Newyork: Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam;; Catalonia, J.W., Taylor, T.P., Rabson, S.A., Chritien, B., A method for dinitrochlorobenzene contact sensitization. A clinicopathological study (1972) New Engl J Med, 286, pp. 399-402; Farr, S.A., Flood, J.F., Morley, J.E., The effect of cholinergic, gabaergic, serotonergic, glutamergic receptor modulation on post trial memory process in hippocampus (2000) Neurol Learning Memory, 73, pp. 150-167; Borlongan, C.V., Fujisaki, T., Watanabe, S., Cyclosporine A injection in rats with damaged BBB does not impair retention of passive avoidance (1990) Neurosci Res, 32, pp. 195-200; Hagan, J.J., Morris, R.G.M., The cholinergic hypothesis of memory (1988) Handbook of Psychopharmacology, pp. 237-323. , In: Iverson LL, Iverson S, snyder SH eds.; Newyork: Plenum; Bisset, N.G., Nwai, W.U., Antiarthritic, bitter tonic and antibacterial activity of Tinospora cordifolia (1983) Plant Med, 48, pp. 275-279; Toes, R.C., Mohammad, E., The effect of neonatal choline dietary supplementation on adult spatial and configural learning and memory in rats (1999) Dev Psychobiol, 35, pp. 226-240; Cunha, D.A., Neuroanatomical and neurochemical correlates of HIV/SIV mediated cognitive and motor impairment (1994) Inflammopharmacol, 3, pp. 65-96; Starr, J.M., Whalley, L.J., Drug induced dementia. Incidence, management and prevention (1994) Drug Saf, 11, pp. 310-317

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - Objective: To study the effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) on learning and memory in normal and cyclosporine induced memory deficit rats. Methods: Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the whole plant of Tinospora cordifolia was administered orally for 15 days in two groups of rats. Cyclosporine 15, 25 mg/kg, i.p. was administered on alternate days for 10 days. Combination of cyclosporine 25 mg/kg, i.p. for 10 days and Tc alcoholic 200 mg/kg and Tc aqueous 100 mg/kg were administered in two different groups of rats. At the end of treatment, learning and memory was assessed using Hebb William maze and passive avoidance task. The locomotor activity was assessed using open field chamber. The immune status was studied using DNCB skin sensitivity test. Histopathological examination of hippocampus was done. Results: Both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Tc produced a decrease in learning scores in Hebb William maze and retention memory indicating enhancement of learning and memory. However, cyclosporine at both the doses increased the learning scores in Hebb William maze and decrease in retention time in the passive avoidance task suggesting a memory deficit. The combination of cyclosporine and Tc produced a decrease in learning scores in Hebb William maze and increase latency in passive avoidance task compared to cyclosporine alone treated rats. The histopathological examination of hippocampus in cyclosporine treated rats showed neurodegenerative changes which were protected by the Tc. Conclusion: Tc enhances cognition (learning and memory) in normal rats. Cyclosporine induced memory deficit was successfully overcome by Tc.

AB - Objective: To study the effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) on learning and memory in normal and cyclosporine induced memory deficit rats. Methods: Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the whole plant of Tinospora cordifolia was administered orally for 15 days in two groups of rats. Cyclosporine 15, 25 mg/kg, i.p. was administered on alternate days for 10 days. Combination of cyclosporine 25 mg/kg, i.p. for 10 days and Tc alcoholic 200 mg/kg and Tc aqueous 100 mg/kg were administered in two different groups of rats. At the end of treatment, learning and memory was assessed using Hebb William maze and passive avoidance task. The locomotor activity was assessed using open field chamber. The immune status was studied using DNCB skin sensitivity test. Histopathological examination of hippocampus was done. Results: Both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Tc produced a decrease in learning scores in Hebb William maze and retention memory indicating enhancement of learning and memory. However, cyclosporine at both the doses increased the learning scores in Hebb William maze and decrease in retention time in the passive avoidance task suggesting a memory deficit. The combination of cyclosporine and Tc produced a decrease in learning scores in Hebb William maze and increase latency in passive avoidance task compared to cyclosporine alone treated rats. The histopathological examination of hippocampus in cyclosporine treated rats showed neurodegenerative changes which were protected by the Tc. Conclusion: Tc enhances cognition (learning and memory) in normal rats. Cyclosporine induced memory deficit was successfully overcome by Tc.

M3 - Article

VL - 34

SP - 339

EP - 349

JO - Indian Journal of Pharmacology

JF - Indian Journal of Pharmacology

SN - 0253-7613

IS - 5

ER -