Effectiveness of an educational program to promote pesticide safety among pesticide handlers of South India

K.G. Sam, H.H. Andrade, L. Pradhan, A. Pradhan, S.J. Sones, P.G.M. Rao, C. Sudhakar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: Occupational poisoning with pesticides is common in developing countries because farmers are often under trained, illiterate and consider it impractical and expensive to use safety equipment, especially in tropical climates. Greater benefit of education programs on prevention can be obtained if initiated in areas having higher occurrence of poisoning. Hence, the present study evaluated occurrence of poisoning and effectiveness of educational interventions among pesticide handlers in areas having high occurrence of occupational poisoning. Methods: Two villages of Udupi district of South India were identified by spot mapping and targeted for a public education program on safe handling of pesticides, the impact of which was assessed using a knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire. Education was provided using a structured individualized training program to 74 pesticide handlers. Three point KAP assessments were carried out at baseline, immediately after training and after 1 month of training. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests and Friedmann tests were used to compare scores at different time points and between groups. Results: Occurrence of occupation related poisoning was 33% and common in three villages of the district. The average baseline KAP score of 30.88 ± 10.33 improved after education significantly (P <0.001) at first follow-up 45.03 ± 9.16 and at second follow-up 42.9 ± 9.54. A decline of score between the first and second follow-up may be attributed to decline in knowledge retention. Demographics like gender, literacy and presence of children affected KAP score and there was no influence of geography, age or frequency of pesticide use. Conclusions: Educational intervention among pesticide handlers improved the KAP score for safe pesticide handling. We recommend that continuous education and training programs for agricultural workers will promote awareness and minimize the hazards of occupational pesticide exposure. © Springer-Verlag 2007.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)787-795
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Volume81
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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Program Evaluation
Pesticides
India
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Safety
Poisoning
Education
Tropical Climate
Equipment Safety
Geography
Occupational Exposure
Occupations
Developing Countries
Demography

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Sam, K.G. ; Andrade, H.H. ; Pradhan, L. ; Pradhan, A. ; Sones, S.J. ; Rao, P.G.M. ; Sudhakar, C. / Effectiveness of an educational program to promote pesticide safety among pesticide handlers of South India. In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2008 ; Vol. 81, No. 6. pp. 787-795.
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title = "Effectiveness of an educational program to promote pesticide safety among pesticide handlers of South India",
abstract = "Objectives: Occupational poisoning with pesticides is common in developing countries because farmers are often under trained, illiterate and consider it impractical and expensive to use safety equipment, especially in tropical climates. Greater benefit of education programs on prevention can be obtained if initiated in areas having higher occurrence of poisoning. Hence, the present study evaluated occurrence of poisoning and effectiveness of educational interventions among pesticide handlers in areas having high occurrence of occupational poisoning. Methods: Two villages of Udupi district of South India were identified by spot mapping and targeted for a public education program on safe handling of pesticides, the impact of which was assessed using a knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire. Education was provided using a structured individualized training program to 74 pesticide handlers. Three point KAP assessments were carried out at baseline, immediately after training and after 1 month of training. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests and Friedmann tests were used to compare scores at different time points and between groups. Results: Occurrence of occupation related poisoning was 33{\%} and common in three villages of the district. The average baseline KAP score of 30.88 ± 10.33 improved after education significantly (P <0.001) at first follow-up 45.03 ± 9.16 and at second follow-up 42.9 ± 9.54. A decline of score between the first and second follow-up may be attributed to decline in knowledge retention. Demographics like gender, literacy and presence of children affected KAP score and there was no influence of geography, age or frequency of pesticide use. Conclusions: Educational intervention among pesticide handlers improved the KAP score for safe pesticide handling. We recommend that continuous education and training programs for agricultural workers will promote awareness and minimize the hazards of occupational pesticide exposure. {\circledC} Springer-Verlag 2007.",
author = "K.G. Sam and H.H. Andrade and L. Pradhan and A. Pradhan and S.J. Sones and P.G.M. Rao and C. Sudhakar",
note = "Cited By :29 Export Date: 10 November 2017 CODEN: IAOHD Correspondence Address: Sam, K.G.; Department of Pharmacy Practice, SS Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal 576101, India; email: kishoreg.sam@manipal.edu Chemicals/CAS: endosulfan, 115-29-7; quinalphos, 13593-03-8; triazophos, 24017-47-8; Pesticides References: Ecobichon, D.J., Pesticide use in developing countries (2001) Toxicology, 160, pp. 27-33; Malik, G.M., Mubarik, M., Romshoo, G.J., Organophosphorus poisoning in the Kashmir Valley-1994 to 1997 (1996) N Engl J Med, 338, p. 1078; Gupta, P.K., Pesticide exposure-Indian scene (2004) Toxicology, 198, pp. 83-90; Arun, M., Nagesh, K.R., Vikram, P., Geriatric poisoning fatalities: A Manipal perspective, medico legal update (2005) World Inf Synd, 5, pp. 9-12; (2007) Toxic Hazards, , http://www.who.int/heli/risks/toxics/chemicals/en/, The Health and Environmental Linkages Initiative, World Health Organization; Mekonnen, Y., Agonafir, T., Pesticide sprayers' knowledge, attitude and practice of pesticide use on agricultural farms of Ethiopia (2002) Occup Med, 52, pp. 311-315; Konradsen, F., Hoek, W., Cole, D.C., Reducing acute poisoning in developing countries-options for restricting the availability of pesticides (2003) Toxicology, 192, pp. 249-261; Ngowi, A.V.F., A study of farmers' knowledge, attitude and experience in the use of pesticides in coffee farming (2003) Afr Newsl Occup Health Saf, 13, pp. 62-64; Conant, J., (2005) Pesticides Are Poison, a Community Guide to Environmental Health, , http://www.hesperian.info/assets/Pesticides_EN.pdf, Hesperian foundation, CA USA; Ellenhorn, M.J., Pesticides (1997) Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology-diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning, pp. 1614-1663. , In: 2nd edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore; (2003) What You Need to Know About Storing a Pesticide. Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension Program College of Agricultural Sciences,., , http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/FreePubs/pdfs/uo216.pdf, Pesticide education program The Pennyslvania State University; Mancini, F., Ariena, H.C., Bruggen, V., Acute pesticide poisoning among female and male cotton growers in India (2005) Int J Occup Environ Health, 11, pp. 221-232; (2004) Monitoring of Pesticide Residue on Crops and Farmer's Education on Safe Use of Pesticide, , http://www.agnet.org/library/pt/2004029/, Food and fertilizer technology center for the Asian and Pacific region; Perry, M.J., Layde, P.M., Farm pesticides-outcomes of a randomised controlled intervention to reduce risks (2003) Am J Prev Med, 24, pp. 310-315; Prochaska, S.C., Ohio Farmer Use of The Pesticide Label (1998) J Ext, 36, p. 1. , http://www.joe.org/joe/1998february/rb2.html; Mandel, H.J., Carr, W.P., Hillmer, T., Safe handling of agricultural pesticides in Minnesota: Results of a county-wide educational intervention (2000) J Rural Health, 16, pp. 148-154; Eddleston, M., Karalliedde, L., Buckley, N., Pesticide poisoning in the developing world - A minimum pesticides list (2002) Lancet, 360, pp. 1163-1167; Bury, D.L., Dbrowski, Z.T., Labanowska, B.H., Survey of current crop and pest management practices on black currant plantations in Poland (2005) J Fruit Ornam Plant Res, 13, pp. 91-100; Salameh, P.R., Baldi, I., Brochard, P., Pesticide in Lebanon: A knowledge, attitude and practice study (2004) Environ Res, 94, pp. 1-6; Recena, M.C.P., Caldas, E.D., Pires, D.X., Pesticides exposure in Culturama, Brazil: Knowledge attitudes and practices (2006) Environ Res, 102, pp. 230-236; Eddleston, M., Phillips, M.R., Self poisoning with pesticides (2004) BMJ, 328, pp. 42-44",
year = "2008",
doi = "10.1007/s00420-007-0263-3",
language = "English",
volume = "81",
pages = "787--795",
journal = "International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health",
issn = "0340-0131",
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Effectiveness of an educational program to promote pesticide safety among pesticide handlers of South India. / Sam, K.G.; Andrade, H.H.; Pradhan, L.; Pradhan, A.; Sones, S.J.; Rao, P.G.M.; Sudhakar, C.

In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol. 81, No. 6, 2008, p. 787-795.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effectiveness of an educational program to promote pesticide safety among pesticide handlers of South India

AU - Sam, K.G.

AU - Andrade, H.H.

AU - Pradhan, L.

AU - Pradhan, A.

AU - Sones, S.J.

AU - Rao, P.G.M.

AU - Sudhakar, C.

N1 - Cited By :29 Export Date: 10 November 2017 CODEN: IAOHD Correspondence Address: Sam, K.G.; Department of Pharmacy Practice, SS Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal 576101, India; email: kishoreg.sam@manipal.edu Chemicals/CAS: endosulfan, 115-29-7; quinalphos, 13593-03-8; triazophos, 24017-47-8; Pesticides References: Ecobichon, D.J., Pesticide use in developing countries (2001) Toxicology, 160, pp. 27-33; Malik, G.M., Mubarik, M., Romshoo, G.J., Organophosphorus poisoning in the Kashmir Valley-1994 to 1997 (1996) N Engl J Med, 338, p. 1078; Gupta, P.K., Pesticide exposure-Indian scene (2004) Toxicology, 198, pp. 83-90; Arun, M., Nagesh, K.R., Vikram, P., Geriatric poisoning fatalities: A Manipal perspective, medico legal update (2005) World Inf Synd, 5, pp. 9-12; (2007) Toxic Hazards, , http://www.who.int/heli/risks/toxics/chemicals/en/, The Health and Environmental Linkages Initiative, World Health Organization; Mekonnen, Y., Agonafir, T., Pesticide sprayers' knowledge, attitude and practice of pesticide use on agricultural farms of Ethiopia (2002) Occup Med, 52, pp. 311-315; Konradsen, F., Hoek, W., Cole, D.C., Reducing acute poisoning in developing countries-options for restricting the availability of pesticides (2003) Toxicology, 192, pp. 249-261; Ngowi, A.V.F., A study of farmers' knowledge, attitude and experience in the use of pesticides in coffee farming (2003) Afr Newsl Occup Health Saf, 13, pp. 62-64; Conant, J., (2005) Pesticides Are Poison, a Community Guide to Environmental Health, , http://www.hesperian.info/assets/Pesticides_EN.pdf, Hesperian foundation, CA USA; Ellenhorn, M.J., Pesticides (1997) Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology-diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning, pp. 1614-1663. , In: 2nd edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore; (2003) What You Need to Know About Storing a Pesticide. Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension Program College of Agricultural Sciences,., , http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/FreePubs/pdfs/uo216.pdf, Pesticide education program The Pennyslvania State University; Mancini, F., Ariena, H.C., Bruggen, V., Acute pesticide poisoning among female and male cotton growers in India (2005) Int J Occup Environ Health, 11, pp. 221-232; (2004) Monitoring of Pesticide Residue on Crops and Farmer's Education on Safe Use of Pesticide, , http://www.agnet.org/library/pt/2004029/, Food and fertilizer technology center for the Asian and Pacific region; Perry, M.J., Layde, P.M., Farm pesticides-outcomes of a randomised controlled intervention to reduce risks (2003) Am J Prev Med, 24, pp. 310-315; Prochaska, S.C., Ohio Farmer Use of The Pesticide Label (1998) J Ext, 36, p. 1. , http://www.joe.org/joe/1998february/rb2.html; Mandel, H.J., Carr, W.P., Hillmer, T., Safe handling of agricultural pesticides in Minnesota: Results of a county-wide educational intervention (2000) J Rural Health, 16, pp. 148-154; Eddleston, M., Karalliedde, L., Buckley, N., Pesticide poisoning in the developing world - A minimum pesticides list (2002) Lancet, 360, pp. 1163-1167; Bury, D.L., Dbrowski, Z.T., Labanowska, B.H., Survey of current crop and pest management practices on black currant plantations in Poland (2005) J Fruit Ornam Plant Res, 13, pp. 91-100; Salameh, P.R., Baldi, I., Brochard, P., Pesticide in Lebanon: A knowledge, attitude and practice study (2004) Environ Res, 94, pp. 1-6; Recena, M.C.P., Caldas, E.D., Pires, D.X., Pesticides exposure in Culturama, Brazil: Knowledge attitudes and practices (2006) Environ Res, 102, pp. 230-236; Eddleston, M., Phillips, M.R., Self poisoning with pesticides (2004) BMJ, 328, pp. 42-44

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - Objectives: Occupational poisoning with pesticides is common in developing countries because farmers are often under trained, illiterate and consider it impractical and expensive to use safety equipment, especially in tropical climates. Greater benefit of education programs on prevention can be obtained if initiated in areas having higher occurrence of poisoning. Hence, the present study evaluated occurrence of poisoning and effectiveness of educational interventions among pesticide handlers in areas having high occurrence of occupational poisoning. Methods: Two villages of Udupi district of South India were identified by spot mapping and targeted for a public education program on safe handling of pesticides, the impact of which was assessed using a knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire. Education was provided using a structured individualized training program to 74 pesticide handlers. Three point KAP assessments were carried out at baseline, immediately after training and after 1 month of training. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests and Friedmann tests were used to compare scores at different time points and between groups. Results: Occurrence of occupation related poisoning was 33% and common in three villages of the district. The average baseline KAP score of 30.88 ± 10.33 improved after education significantly (P <0.001) at first follow-up 45.03 ± 9.16 and at second follow-up 42.9 ± 9.54. A decline of score between the first and second follow-up may be attributed to decline in knowledge retention. Demographics like gender, literacy and presence of children affected KAP score and there was no influence of geography, age or frequency of pesticide use. Conclusions: Educational intervention among pesticide handlers improved the KAP score for safe pesticide handling. We recommend that continuous education and training programs for agricultural workers will promote awareness and minimize the hazards of occupational pesticide exposure. © Springer-Verlag 2007.

AB - Objectives: Occupational poisoning with pesticides is common in developing countries because farmers are often under trained, illiterate and consider it impractical and expensive to use safety equipment, especially in tropical climates. Greater benefit of education programs on prevention can be obtained if initiated in areas having higher occurrence of poisoning. Hence, the present study evaluated occurrence of poisoning and effectiveness of educational interventions among pesticide handlers in areas having high occurrence of occupational poisoning. Methods: Two villages of Udupi district of South India were identified by spot mapping and targeted for a public education program on safe handling of pesticides, the impact of which was assessed using a knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire. Education was provided using a structured individualized training program to 74 pesticide handlers. Three point KAP assessments were carried out at baseline, immediately after training and after 1 month of training. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests and Friedmann tests were used to compare scores at different time points and between groups. Results: Occurrence of occupation related poisoning was 33% and common in three villages of the district. The average baseline KAP score of 30.88 ± 10.33 improved after education significantly (P <0.001) at first follow-up 45.03 ± 9.16 and at second follow-up 42.9 ± 9.54. A decline of score between the first and second follow-up may be attributed to decline in knowledge retention. Demographics like gender, literacy and presence of children affected KAP score and there was no influence of geography, age or frequency of pesticide use. Conclusions: Educational intervention among pesticide handlers improved the KAP score for safe pesticide handling. We recommend that continuous education and training programs for agricultural workers will promote awareness and minimize the hazards of occupational pesticide exposure. © Springer-Verlag 2007.

U2 - 10.1007/s00420-007-0263-3

DO - 10.1007/s00420-007-0263-3

M3 - Article

VL - 81

SP - 787

EP - 795

JO - International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health

JF - International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health

SN - 0340-0131

IS - 6

ER -