Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of music on anxiety and pain among patients following cardiac surgery. Background: Cardiac surgery affects patients physically, psychologically and socially. Anxiety and pain are the usual problems among patients following cardiac surgery. Design: The study design is a systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources: The Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE) and Web of Science databases were searched for randomized controlled trials from January 2000 to December 2017. Review methods: The Cochrane collaboration guidelines were followed and reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) approach was used to summarize the quality of evidence. Results: Fourteen studies were included in systematic review and 13 in meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that there was a significant reduction in anxiety and pain among patients who received musical intervention compared with those who did not. Conclusion: Music has positive benefits on anxiety and pain. However, well-designed and high-quality trials are needed to generate higher quality evidence.
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