Abstract

Introduction: Falls are important health issues among the elderly people. Most falls in elderly result from abnormal balance control mechanisms. Balance and muscle force generation are directly related, and are associated with age related muscular changes. Studies addressing fall prevention have focused on various group and individualised strength training. However, evidence on strengthening of key muscles necessary for maintaining balance and postural control is lacking. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of individualised progressive resistance strength training (PRT) programme in improving balance for forward limits of stability in elderly with balance impairment, compared to traditional balance exercise (TBE), and combination of both (COMBI). Materials and Methods: This randomised controlled trial included three groups; 18 subjects in each aged ≥ 65 years, from the elderly care centres of Mangalore city in Southern India (between June 2008 and December 2012). Block randomisation technique was used and allocation concealment was done using sequentially arranged sealed opaque envelopes. The TBE group received 8 component traditional balance exercise; 4 times a week for 6 months. The PRT group received resistance training for the key muscles of lower extremities, using DeLormes and Watkins protocol. The COMBI group received PRT and TBE alternately (2 days of PRT and 2 days of TBE per week). Functional reach test (FRT) was used for measurement of forward limits of stability. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. Results: For functional reach, PRT group had steady progression from baseline to 6 months (p<0.001). The TBE and COMBI groups showed considerable initial improvement; beyond 3 months, moderate improvement was seen. The changes in scores of FRT were significantly better for PRT than TBE. Conclusion: Individualised PRT intervention targeting the key muscles of lower limbs is more effective than TBE in improving forward limits of stability among non-frail elderly aged ≥65 years.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-102
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15-03-2014

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Resistance Training
Muscle
Randomized Controlled Trials
Exercise
Social sciences
Health
Muscles
Lower Extremity
Postural Balance
Social Sciences
Random Allocation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)
  • Clinical Biochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Effectiveness of progressive resistance strength training versus traditional balance exercise in improving balance among the elderly - a randomised controlled trial",
abstract = "Introduction: Falls are important health issues among the elderly people. Most falls in elderly result from abnormal balance control mechanisms. Balance and muscle force generation are directly related, and are associated with age related muscular changes. Studies addressing fall prevention have focused on various group and individualised strength training. However, evidence on strengthening of key muscles necessary for maintaining balance and postural control is lacking. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of individualised progressive resistance strength training (PRT) programme in improving balance for forward limits of stability in elderly with balance impairment, compared to traditional balance exercise (TBE), and combination of both (COMBI). Materials and Methods: This randomised controlled trial included three groups; 18 subjects in each aged ≥ 65 years, from the elderly care centres of Mangalore city in Southern India (between June 2008 and December 2012). Block randomisation technique was used and allocation concealment was done using sequentially arranged sealed opaque envelopes. The TBE group received 8 component traditional balance exercise; 4 times a week for 6 months. The PRT group received resistance training for the key muscles of lower extremities, using DeLormes and Watkins protocol. The COMBI group received PRT and TBE alternately (2 days of PRT and 2 days of TBE per week). Functional reach test (FRT) was used for measurement of forward limits of stability. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. Results: For functional reach, PRT group had steady progression from baseline to 6 months (p<0.001). The TBE and COMBI groups showed considerable initial improvement; beyond 3 months, moderate improvement was seen. The changes in scores of FRT were significantly better for PRT than TBE. Conclusion: Individualised PRT intervention targeting the key muscles of lower limbs is more effective than TBE in improving forward limits of stability among non-frail elderly aged ≥65 years.",
author = "Joshua, {Abraham M.} and Vivian D'Souza and B. Unnikrishnan and Prasanna Mithra and Asha Kamath and Vishak Acharya and Anand Venugopal",
year = "2014",
month = "3",
day = "15",
doi = "10.7860/JCDR/2014/8217.4119",
language = "English",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Effectiveness of progressive resistance strength training versus traditional balance exercise in improving balance among the elderly - a randomised controlled trial

AU - Joshua, Abraham M.

AU - D'Souza, Vivian

AU - Unnikrishnan, B.

AU - Mithra, Prasanna

AU - Kamath, Asha

AU - Acharya, Vishak

AU - Venugopal, Anand

PY - 2014/3/15

Y1 - 2014/3/15

N2 - Introduction: Falls are important health issues among the elderly people. Most falls in elderly result from abnormal balance control mechanisms. Balance and muscle force generation are directly related, and are associated with age related muscular changes. Studies addressing fall prevention have focused on various group and individualised strength training. However, evidence on strengthening of key muscles necessary for maintaining balance and postural control is lacking. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of individualised progressive resistance strength training (PRT) programme in improving balance for forward limits of stability in elderly with balance impairment, compared to traditional balance exercise (TBE), and combination of both (COMBI). Materials and Methods: This randomised controlled trial included three groups; 18 subjects in each aged ≥ 65 years, from the elderly care centres of Mangalore city in Southern India (between June 2008 and December 2012). Block randomisation technique was used and allocation concealment was done using sequentially arranged sealed opaque envelopes. The TBE group received 8 component traditional balance exercise; 4 times a week for 6 months. The PRT group received resistance training for the key muscles of lower extremities, using DeLormes and Watkins protocol. The COMBI group received PRT and TBE alternately (2 days of PRT and 2 days of TBE per week). Functional reach test (FRT) was used for measurement of forward limits of stability. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. Results: For functional reach, PRT group had steady progression from baseline to 6 months (p<0.001). The TBE and COMBI groups showed considerable initial improvement; beyond 3 months, moderate improvement was seen. The changes in scores of FRT were significantly better for PRT than TBE. Conclusion: Individualised PRT intervention targeting the key muscles of lower limbs is more effective than TBE in improving forward limits of stability among non-frail elderly aged ≥65 years.

AB - Introduction: Falls are important health issues among the elderly people. Most falls in elderly result from abnormal balance control mechanisms. Balance and muscle force generation are directly related, and are associated with age related muscular changes. Studies addressing fall prevention have focused on various group and individualised strength training. However, evidence on strengthening of key muscles necessary for maintaining balance and postural control is lacking. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of individualised progressive resistance strength training (PRT) programme in improving balance for forward limits of stability in elderly with balance impairment, compared to traditional balance exercise (TBE), and combination of both (COMBI). Materials and Methods: This randomised controlled trial included three groups; 18 subjects in each aged ≥ 65 years, from the elderly care centres of Mangalore city in Southern India (between June 2008 and December 2012). Block randomisation technique was used and allocation concealment was done using sequentially arranged sealed opaque envelopes. The TBE group received 8 component traditional balance exercise; 4 times a week for 6 months. The PRT group received resistance training for the key muscles of lower extremities, using DeLormes and Watkins protocol. The COMBI group received PRT and TBE alternately (2 days of PRT and 2 days of TBE per week). Functional reach test (FRT) was used for measurement of forward limits of stability. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. Results: For functional reach, PRT group had steady progression from baseline to 6 months (p<0.001). The TBE and COMBI groups showed considerable initial improvement; beyond 3 months, moderate improvement was seen. The changes in scores of FRT were significantly better for PRT than TBE. Conclusion: Individualised PRT intervention targeting the key muscles of lower limbs is more effective than TBE in improving forward limits of stability among non-frail elderly aged ≥65 years.

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U2 - 10.7860/JCDR/2014/8217.4119

DO - 10.7860/JCDR/2014/8217.4119

M3 - Article

VL - 8

SP - 98

EP - 102

JO - Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

JF - Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

SN - 2249-782X

IS - 3

ER -