Background: To evaluate the effect of distilled water, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), phosphoric acid and maleic acid on Biodentine regarding surface topography, microhardness and push-out bond strength (POBS). Methods: Fifty-two cylindrical shaped Biodentine specimens were divided into groups: control (distilled water); EDTA (17% EDTA); PA (37% phosphoric acid); and MA (7% maleic acid). Surfaces were evaluated by topographic analysis and Vickers microhardness test. Topographic changes were evaluated qualitatively and microhardness was statistically analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis test. Forty mandibular molars were used to simulate clinical conditions. The crowns were removed and a perforation was created at the furcal floor. The Biodentine was packed into the root perforations and the roots were divided into four groups (DW, EDTA, PA, MA). Samples were stored and subjected to interfacial analysis. POBS data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn tests. Results: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, MA and PA changed the morphology of the Biodentine surface. PA showed microhardness similar to distilled water (P > 0.05), while MA and EDTA demonstrated reduced values when compared with PA (P < 0.05). PA improved the POBS of Biodentine in comparison with the control. Conclusions: Changes in the topography, microhardness and POBS of Biodentine are associated with irrigant agent used.
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