The progress of technology in consumer electronics demand an antenna having a compact size, high gain and bandwidth, and multiple antennas at transmitter and receiver to enhance the channel capacity. Over the last decade, numerous techniques are proposed to improve the performance of the antenna. One such technique is the use of metamaterials (MTMs) in antenna design. MTMs are artificial structures to provide unique electromagnetic properties that are not available in natural materials. The unique properties of these materials allow the design of high-performance antennas, filters, and microwave devices which cannot be obtained using traditional antennas. Loading antenna with the one, two, and three-dimensional MTM structures comprised of a periodic subwavelength unit cell exhibits RLC resonant structures and allows to manipulate electromagnetic waves in the antenna system. These structures offer low resonant frequency compared to the antenna resonant frequency resulting in antenna miniaturization and manipulation of electromagnetic waves helps in enhancing the gain and bandwidth, and achieving circular polarization (CP) of an antenna system. Also, metamaterial loading enhances isolation between the antenna elements in the MIMO system by suppressing the surface waves. In this paper, the electromagnetics of MTM with analytical expressions and its application in antenna design are discussed in detail. The MTM-based antennas are classified into MTM loading, MTM inspired antenna, metasurface loading, and composite right/left hand (CRLH) based antennas. The recent development in MTM inspired antenna and its application in antenna miniaturization, enhancing gain and bandwidth, achieving CP and mutual coupling suppression in multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems are discussed to make it useful for further research.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Science(all)
- Materials Science(all)