Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in critically ill patients. Its etiological spectrum in India is expected to be different from that seen in western countries due to the high prevalence of tropical infections. Aim: To study the epidemiological profile of ARDS patients. Setting: A tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 150 out of the 169 ARDS patients diagnosed during 2010-2012. Data collected included the clinical features and severity scoring parameters. Results: The mean age of the study population was 42.92 ± 13.91 years. The causes of ARDS included pneumonia (n = 35, 23.3%), scrub typhus (n = 33, 22%), leptospirosis (n = 11, 7.3%), malaria (n = 6, 4%), influenza (H1N1) (n = 10, 6.7%), pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 2, 1.3%), dengue (n = 1, 0.7%), abdominal sepsis (n = 16, 10.7%), skin infection (n = 3, 2%), unknown cause of sepsis (n = 18, 12%), and nonseptic causes (n = 15, 10%). A total of 77 (51.3%) patients survived, 66 (44%) expired, and 7 (4.7%) were discharged against medical advice (AMA). Preexisting comorbidities (46) were present in 13 survivors, 19 nonsurvivors, and four discharged AMA. History of surgery prior to the onset of ARDS was present in one survivor, 13 nonsurvivors, and one discharge AMA. Mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, APACHE III, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores in survivors were 9.06 ± 4.3, 49.22 ± 14, and 6.43 ± 2.5 and in nonsurvivors 21.11 ± 7, 86.45 ± 23.5, and 10.6 ± 10, respectively. Conclusion: The most common cause of ARDS in our study was pneumonia, but a large percentage of cases were due to the tropical infections. Preexisting comorbidity, surgery prior to the onset of ARDS, higher severity scores, and organ failure scores were more frequently observed among nonsurvivors than survivors.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine