As an integral part of the cell, mitochondria play a pivotal role in the regulation of energy metabolism, signaling pathways, cell differentiation, cell proliferation and cell death. Mitochondrion with its own genetic material has characteristics distinct from those of the nuclear counterpart and its dysregulation is associated with a myriad of diseases. The discovery of interplay between the nuclear and mitochondrial genes, and various post-transcriptional modifications associated with their products has added excitement in the field. This has led to a better understanding of the basic mitochondrial function in normal and disease states, and is important for diagnosis and prognosis of a large number of disorders. The Fourth Annual Conference of Society for Mitochondrial Research and Medicine - India (SMRM) was titled "Mitochondrial Biology: from Molecules to Disease". The conference was organized by K. Satyamoorthy and K. Thangaraj at School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, India, during 8-9 December, 2014. The aim of the conference was to bring researchers and clinicians to a common platform; create an opportunity for networking between laboratories; and to discuss about the recent development in mitochondrial biology, diagnosis, and therapy. This review summarizes the key outcomes of the conference.