Context: Oxidative stress acts as an essential mediator in the pathophysiology of urolithiasis. Lepidagathis prostrata Dalz. (Acanthaceae) is a Pashanbhed plant that is recommended for the management of urolithiasis; however, no scientific validation has been reported. Objectives: To evaluate the antiurolithiatic and antioxidant potential of L. prostrata. Materials and methods: Methanol extract (LPM) and fractions; petroleum ether (LPPE), ethyl acetate (LPEA), n-butanol (LPBU) and aqueous (LPAQ) were prepared. In vitro antiurolithiatic activity was evaluated by the capacity to inhibit calcium oxalate (CaOx) nucleation and aggregation at different concentrations of extract/fractions (0.04–3 mg/mL) for 30 min. Total phenol and flavonoid content and antioxidant potential were determined. A validated HPTLC method was performed to quantify lupeol and β-sitosterol. Results: LPEA exhibited the highest dose-dependent inhibition of CaOx nucleation (IC50: 336.23 ± 30.79 µg/mL) and aggregation (IC50: 149.63 ± 10.31 µg/mL), which was significantly (p < 0.05) better than standard Cystone®. The polar LPBU fraction was enriched with phenols (47.34 ± 0.19 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (20.38 ± 0.05 mg QE/g), which correlates with its highest antioxidant potential in DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide scavenging and iron chelating activities (IC50: 1.18–87.34 µg/mL). To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of lupeol and β-sitosterol in L. prostrata. Conclusion: The antiurolithiatic activity of L. prostrata is probably mediated through the inhibition of CaOx crystallization. In addition to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities, it would act as an excellent agent for the prevention of urolithiasis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Drug Discovery
- Complementary and alternative medicine