Background: Pulp capping should always be considered as the primary treatment of choice for teeth without irreversible pulpitis in lesions approaching dental pulp. The predictability of vital pulp therapy has improved with the introduction of newer bioceramic materials. Aim: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the outcomes of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil) and a pozzolan-based cement (ENDOCEM-Zr®[Maruchi, Wonju, Korea]) as an indirect pulp capping (IPC) material. Materials and Methods: IPC was performed in forty patients who were randomly divided into ENDOCEM-Zr®and MTA groups. The outcome was assessed using clinical and radiographic tests at different time intervals. The prognostic factors on the outcome of IPC were also evaluated. Results and Conclusions: The success rate of ENDOCEM-Zr®and MTA groups was 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The results were not statistically significant. Binary logical regression showed that the age of the patient and the status of the pulp before treatment were deciding variables for the outcome of the study. Therefore, it was concluded from the study that the evaluated pozzolan-based cement could be used as an alternative to MTA because of its faster setting time and lower discoloration potential. In addition, pulp capping should be performed with caution in individuals above 40 years and in teeth with reversible pulpitis.
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