Objective: Papilla formation after placement of an implant is influenced by the underlying bone and the periodontal biotype. The second-stage surgery to uncover the implants may have an effect on the regeneration of papilla and various techniques such as the scalpel, diode laser, and punch technique are used. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate papillary fill levels following three different techniques of second-stage implant surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 35 patients with 45 implants (39 single implants and 3 sites with two adjacent implants) were randomly divided into three groups with 15 implants each: second-stage implant surgery with midcrestal incision using scalpel (Group I), with I-shaped incision using scalpel (Group II), and using diode laser (Group III). The mean papillary fill and mean crestal bone loss for all three groups were compared at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months of prosthesis delivery. Results: Complete papilla fill at 6 months was seen in 60% and 73.3% of sites in Group II and Group III, respectively. Bone level contacting implant and adjacent teeth was less in both Groups II and III. Bone level from the contact point to the bone crest was least in Groups II and III. Conclusion: The use of diode laser during second-stage surgery showed maximum papillary fill and minimal crestal bone loss when compared with other two techniques. Irrespective of technique used for second-stage surgery, bone loss did occur after prosthesis delivery.
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