Increasing evidence suggests a sizable involvement of hemotoxins in the morbidity associated with envenomation by the Indian spectacled cobra, Naja naja (N.N). This study investigates the ability of Indian polyvalent anti-snake venom (ASV), methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata (MAP) and their combination in reversing the hemostatic abnormalities, viz. activated partial thromboplastin time(aPTT), prothrombin time(PT) and thrombin time(TT) in citrated plasma. These parameters were assessed in 2 groups of experiments. Group 1: Without the prior incubation of plasma with venom and Group 2: With prior incubation of plasma with venom for 90 min at 37°C. Venom caused significant (p < 0.001) prolongation in aPTT (175%), PT (49%) and TT (34%) in Group 1 and ASV could completely bring them back to normal. MAP showed a concentration-dependent reversal in aPTT, normalization of PT and prolongation of TT. When low concentration of ASV was supplemented with MAP, their combined effect in normalizing aPTT and PT improved by 37% and 26% respectively when compared to ASV alone. In Group 2, venom caused significant (p < 0.001) prolongation in aPTT (231%), PT (312%) and TT (245%). ASV had limited effect in reversing aPTT (52%), TT (31%) but completely normalized PT. MAP was marginally effective in reversing the prolonged aPTT and PT but caused further prolongation of TT. Combination of ASV and MAP was more effective than ASV alone in reversing venom-induced increase in aPTT (52%) and PT (29%). The study proved that, a drastic reduction of ASV by 70%, could be effectively supplemented by MAP in combating hemostatic abnormalities induced by NN venom.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)